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For any language $L$ over $\Sigma^*$, define $$L_{1/2} = \{x \in \Sigma^* : xy\in L, y\in\Sigma^{|x|} \}.$$ In words, $L_{1/2}$ consists of all $x$ for which there is a $y$ of equal length such that $xy\in L$.

An exercise in Sipser's book asks to show that $L_{1/2}$ is regular whenever $L$ is. I have seen two distinct solutions, and both involve an exponential blow-up of states.

Question: can anyone construct a family of languages $\{L_n\}$ such that the canonical automaton for $(L_n)_{1/2}$ is significantly (say, exponentially) larger than that for $L$? My best efforts so far only increase the state size by $+1$!

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you dont mention the semiobvious issue of DFA minimization. havent seen the proofs but maybe they do not take it into acct. and a DFA minimization post-run on the proof construction might simplify the DFA significantly...? –  vzn Feb 28 '12 at 16:56
The constructions in the proofs are abstract and it's not at all clear how to minimize them via the standard techniques. –  Aryeh Feb 28 '12 at 18:49
Can you post the best family of languages you've found? –  Diego de Estrada Feb 29 '12 at 0:35
this is not reqd to answer your Q but it might be helpful to sketch out the constructions. another option is to attack the problem empirically with random FSMs –  vzn Feb 29 '12 at 1:38
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1 Answer

up vote 19 down vote accepted

See Mike Domaratzki's paper, State complexity of proportional removals



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Excellent! theorem 6 gives a family of languages with $\Omega(e^{\sqrt{n\log n}})$ and theorem 3 gives an upper bound of $O(n e^{\sqrt{n\log n}})$, so there is little space for improvement. –  Diego de Estrada Feb 29 '12 at 2:34
Many thanks, good to know! –  Aryeh Feb 29 '12 at 6:27
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