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see also proof claimed for connection between primes by Ball, Nature – vzn Sep 11 '12 at 1:27
high voted post with bkg/analysis/papers/links, mathoverflow, philosophy behind mochizuki's work" – vzn Sep 28 '12 at 15:38
polymath resources on the Mochizuki attack, generally frequently updated. links to Mochizukis papers, recent discussions, (MSM) media coverage etc – vzn Sep 30 '12 at 18:41

Bhatnagar, Gopalan, and Lipton show that, assuming the abc conjecture, there are polynomials of degree $O((kn)^{1/2+\varepsilon})$ representing the Threshold-of-$k$ function over ${\mathbb Z}_6$. For fixed constant $k$, and $m$ which has $t$ prime factors, the abc conjecture implies a polynomial for Threshold-of-$k$ over $\mathbb Z_m$ with degree $O(n^{1/t+\varepsilon})$.

This presumably has relevance to the ${\sf TC^0}$ versus $\sf ACC^0[6]$ problem.

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this paper points out that computing the reciprocal square root value using floating point representation is widespread in CS applications ("very common in scientific computations"); the authors show that a more efficient formula is possible for computing the correctly rounded value if the ABC conjecture holds.

[1] The abc conjecture and correctly rounded reciprocal square roots Ernie Croot, Ren-Cang Li, Hui June Zhu, Elsevier TCS 2004

[2] fast inverse square root calculation, wikipedia

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