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I know $CSL\subset UL$ can be demonstrated by reduction to the absurd, but I've been trying to find a language that is in Type 0 ($UL$) and not in Context-Sensitive Languages ($CSL$).

Is there any language with such restrictions that isn't a Context-Sensitive language?

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As UL is the same as recursively enumerable and CSL the same as NSPACE[n] (see, e.g., Wikipedia), you may use your favorite version of the Space hierarchy theorem to get your language in UL \ CSL. –  Michaël Cadilhac Feb 22 '11 at 3:15
    
@Michaël Cadilhac, I think you can post it as answer so the question becomes answered. –  Kaveh Feb 22 '11 at 4:26
    
@Kaveh You're right. @Michaël, post it as an answer, and add something if you want, to mark is at the right answer ;) –  Oscar Mederos Feb 22 '11 at 4:35
    
Michaël Cadilhac has posted his answer, now you can accept it. –  Kaveh Feb 23 '11 at 6:51

2 Answers 2

up vote 5 down vote accepted

Type 0 grammars denote exactly recursively enumerable languages, and CSL = NSPACE[$n$] (e.g., Wikipedia). Thus, your favorite proof of the Space Hierarchy Theorem gives an explicit language in, say, NSPACE[$n^2$] \ NSPACE[$n$], thus in UL \ CSL.

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Or more simply, any RE-complete problem, like the halting language. –  Mark Reitblatt Feb 22 '11 at 14:08
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Of course ; that's indeed the "farthest" language from CSL to fit, and I proposed the "farthest" language from UL for the same job. –  Michaël Cadilhac Feb 22 '11 at 15:16
    
to be more adequate with the statement "NSPACE[n2] \ NSPACE[n], thus in UL \ CSL", better to say it is so if P<>NP. –  Charles Yu Apr 18 '13 at 16:48

Since deciding membership for a context-sensitive grammar is in $PSPACE$ ($NSPACE[n]$ even), any language not in $PSPACE$ is not expressable by a context-sensitive grammar. An example is therefore the language of all true propositions in Presburger arithmetic (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Presburger_arithmetic).

Since we suspect that $PSPACE \neq EXPTIME$, we expect any $EXPTIME$-hard language to be sufficient. Alternatively, any $EXPSPACE$-hard problem is provably not context-sensitive by the space hierarchy theorem.

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