# Tagged Questions

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### How to model degree variable in logic (new type of modal logic?)?

I am trying to model domain in logic (first order logic or some of modal logics) and I have variable which is degree and not true-false variable. There can be different conclusions depending on the ...
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### How to specify and verify Horn clauses (logic programming programs)? Semantics of Horn clauses

There are lot of applications of Horn clauses (notable examples include use of rules in cognitive architectures and knowledge bases, as well as use of rules in business rules programs). Are there ...
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### Abduction in a Herbrand Constraint System

I have a simple constraint system with a finite set $C$ of constant symbols, an infinite set $V$ of variables, and two relation symbols - $R_1$, a preorder, and $R_2$, an equivalence relation. ...
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### How to select good examples for inductive logic programming?

I encounter a question while reading Quinlan's 1990 paper "Learning Logical Definitions from Relations". He described that (section 5.2) for learning the recursive relations on lists, the following is ...
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### What is the formalism behind ?- (query) in Prolog?

I am in general interested in a more formal (better be logical, as in related to mathematical logic) definition of a query. As an example, there's Prolog operator ...
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### Consistency and completeness of any arbitrary 3-valued logic? [closed]

Based on the explanations here [1] I know that 3-valued first order logic has many different versions, which differ in the definition of their operations (e.g. implication). All of these (as far as I ...
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### Three-valued logic solver?

This is not my area, so apologizes if I am asking nonsense! I know that there are very good solver/theorem provers for solving 1st order logic. Now I have a problem, using 3-valued logic, but I am ...
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### Completeness of the extension of first order logic with least fixed point order operator

Is there any result about the extension of first order logic with least fixed point operator, being complete (as logic in general on infinite structures too) or not? In other words does the Goedel ...
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### What is logic programming and does it really add anything new to the logic?

I am acquinted with the basics of such notions as logic programming, monotonic and non-monotonic reasoning, modal logic (especially dynamic logic) and now I am wondering - does logic programming ...
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### Is there good open source project that apply semantic web, modal logics, and similar technologies

Recently such themes as semantic web, modal logics, business rules have seen increased interest as research topics in computer science (alhough many of then have more than 80 years of history), but ...
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### What is a practical non-von Neumann architecture?

Are there any practical applications for non-von Neumann programming models? What are the most widely adopted non-von Neumann programming languages?
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### Papers on Prolog-like languages without closed world assumption (CWA)

Prolog execution process may be seen as a search that model scientific search for a proof of a proposition. At the same time, real world scientific search greatly differs from Prolog search in the ...
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### Minimize a datalog program

We can consider a datalog program as a set of clauses. Some of them allow to derive others. For instance from: A(x) :- B(x), C(x). B(x) :- D(x). C(x) :- D(x). We ...
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### Recommendation for a good book on first order logic w.r.t inductive logic programming

I have had 10 days to read up on Computational Logic but the books I am following are only succeeding in confusing me. I find most of text's ( Niehuys-Cheng & de Wolf 1997, De Raedt 2008, Lloyd ...
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### DATALOG references

What are the best references for self study in DATALOG? I am particularly interested in expressive power, complexity results, evaluation methods, extensions of DATALOG with negation etc. Are there any ...