Quantum computation and computational issues related to quantum mechanics

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Are there any cases where quantum has given insight for classical algorithms?

To be more specific, has it ever happened that we've made some kind of significant improvement to a classical algorithm or problem as a result of some "trick" or insight gained from looking at quantum ...
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Is any QMA-intermediate problem known?

Similar to the class of classical NP-intermediate problems (e.g. Graph Isomorphism), is there any "QMA-intermediate" problem known, that is in QMA but not known to be QMA-complete? Has this been ...
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Known time complexity advantage of quantum algorithms over classical algorithms [duplicate]

I know that this question may depend on how one formulates each complexity class, but in general, what time complexity advantage does quantum algorithms have over classical algorithms?
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Applications of Harrow's algorithm for solving linear equations

In Harrow's algorithm for solving a system of linear equations the output is a quantum state rather than explicit information. Has anyone been able to apply knowledge of this quantum state to solve a ...
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The randomized query complexity of the conjoined trees problem

An important 2003 paper by Childs et al. introduced the "conjoined trees problem": a problem admitting an exponential quantum speedup that's unlike just about any other such problem that we know of. ...
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Explicit error bounds on the abelian hidden subgroup problem

What are some explicit forms for the error probability in the typical quantum abelian hidden subgroup algorithm as a function of oracles queries? Ettinger, Hoyer, and Knill give a result that the ...
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Quantum algorithms based on transforms other than Fourier transforms

In Quantum Computation and Quantum Information by Nielsen and Chuang they say that many of the algorithms based on quantum Fourier transforms rely on the Coset Invariance property of Fourier ...
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Oracular separations between poly- and log-depth quantum circuits

The following problem appears in Aaronson's list Ten Semi-Grand Challenges for Quantum Computing Theory. Is $\mathsf{BQP}=\mathsf{BPP}^{\mathsf{BQNC}}$ In other words, can the "quantum" part of ...
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Non-Transversal Fault Tolerant Gate

I have always heard that transversality is a sufficient, not a necessary condition for fault-tolerance in quantum computation. However, I have never seen any examples of non-transversal fault tolerant ...
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Construction of Quantum equivalent of Markov chain with refer. to Szegedy et al

While reading Szegedy's initial paper on the Quantum equivalent of a Markov chain, one can see the following construction (may be wrong here but this is just an outline). The procedure to construct a ...
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Is there a formal proof that quantum computing is or will be faster than classical computing?

Rather than empirical evidence, by what formal principles have we proved that quantum computing will be faster than traditional/classical computing?
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Quantum Fourier Transform question regarding measurement

When we use the quantum fourier transform, for a function, the output is entangled, so if a measurement is made on the output, the result may not be that of the function that one wanted in the first ...
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Why is BQPSPACE in PSPACE if it can have doubly exponentially long running times?

The standard proof that BQPSPACE is in PSPACE relies on a Savitch game type analysis on path integrals. However, it assumes the time running length for BQPSPACE is at most exponentially long. This is ...
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How the errors of the measured quantities of an adiabatic Hamiltonian are inversely proportional to the square root of the number of measurements?

I am going through the paper, Solving the graph-isomorphism problem with a quantum annealer, by Hen et. al. In the last line of the second paragraph of the second column of page 2, it says, Since ...
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A quantum algorithm for GCD

Does anyone know of a direct quantum algorithm for computing GCD, - There could be quantum gates for addition subtraction constructed explicitly, using CNOT, etc. - the construction can be done in ...
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Hardness of quantum circuit equivalence?

Given two poly-sized quantum circuits $C_1$ and $C_2$ on $n$ qubits with a universal gate set generated by some finite set of one and two qubit gates. I'm thinking of the gates $\langle H, T, ...
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What complexity issues are there in considering quantum algorithms with infinite gate-sets?

Short Version Suppose that you want to consider a model of quantum computation in which the gates used in the circuits may depend on the input size. Are there pitfalls to avoid when defining the ...
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Are two-qubit unitaries necessary for universal quantum computation?

I was going through Fast Universal Quantum Computation with Railroad-switch Local Hamiltonians by Daniel Nagaj. In the first sentence of the fifth paragraph on the fourth page, he said, Two-qubit ...
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Generating quadratic optimization problems amenable to quantum annealing

Some context: there is a current debate in adiabatic quantum computing over whether a particular machine, the D-Wave quantum annealer, can outperform a classical algorithm [*]. Earlier this year, a ...
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How powerful is exact “quantum” computing if you suspend unitarity?

Short Question. What is the computational power of "quantum" circuits, if we allow non-unitary (but still invertible) gates, and require the output to give the correct answer with certainty? This ...
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Applications of Quantum Walks?

Can someone explain to me what real world applications could potentially benefit from the study of quantum random walks? I have researched a fair amount on how quantum walks operate and their ...
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Grover's search algorithm for 3 coloring

According to Arora & Barak (pdf), pg. 186, for a polynomial-time computable function $f: \{0,1\}^n \to \{0,1\}$ (represented as a circuit computing $f$), Grover's algorithm finds in ...
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Running Simon's algorithm on D-wave machine

I was wondering whether Simon's algorithm could be run on a D-wave machine. The Simon's algorithm is a promise problem. On the other hand the D-wave machine can run only quadratic unconstrained ...
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How hard it is to approximate the ground state of the (2-D) Hubbard model

The Hubbard model (see also the wikipedea article on the Bose-Hubbard model) is a basic quantum model of solid-state physics. Question: What is the computational complexity of approximating the ...
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Are NQP and QMA comparable?

Both definitions try to create a quantum analog for NP. NQP's definition comes from non-deterministic algorithms: it contains languages for which a Quantum Algorithm accepts with non-zero probability ...
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Why is finding the ground state of a Hamiltonian in QMA?

Why is finding the ground stte of a Hamiltonian in QMA? It's in QMA to figure out if a hamiltonian has any energy eigenvalue within a certain window range which is at least inverse polynomial in ...
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Why is Shor's algorithm in $BPP^{BQNC}$ when needing to uncompute subprocedure call?

Why is Shor's algorithm in $BPP^{BQNC}$? It's true the quantum Fourier transform is in $BPP^{BQNC}$, but the algorithm needs to call a number theoretic function f which has period p which is a factor ...
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Determining if a function is constant or not using period finding

Consider an arbitrary boolean function $$f: {\lbrace 0,1 \rbrace}^n \rightarrow \lbrace 0,1 \rbrace$$ which we write as: $$f(x_1, x_2 ... x_n) $$ where each $x_i$ is a boolean variable We note ...
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Computing the period of a function using a quantum computer

Consider a blackbox function $$f(x): Z \rightarrow \lbrace 0,1 \rbrace $$ Which inputs an integer and outputs 0 or 1 with bit complexity n. If the period P of this function satisfies $$P \in ...
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Period of a Multivariable Function using Quantum Computing

consider a function $$f(x_1,x_2...x_n)$$ I am told it is possible to compute the period of the function as a vector $$<l_1,l_2...l_n>$$ where each l denotes the period of the function for ...
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Differences between Quantum Computing and Parallelism [closed]

What are the differences between Quantum Computing and Parallelism? thanks in advance
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What is the underlying physical principle behind quantum fault tolerance in quantum computation?

What is the underlying physical principle behind quantum fault tolerance in quantum computation? I am trying to follow the mathematical steps behind quantum fault tolerance, and while I can just ...
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Environment-assisted quantum transport computation

The paper below and the news story based on it describe a new form of computation based on what they call environment-assisted quantum transport (ENAQT). ENAQT involves a combination of quantum and ...
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Is the sub-bit model of quantum computation equivalent to other models? [closed]

In a comment to this question Peter Shor asked me for a reference about the third described in the question point of view, namely, that quantum computers can be described as computers that can ...
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Techniques for lower bounding spectral gaps in the quantum adiabatic algorithm

In the quantum adiabatic algorithm, one prepares the ground state of a Hamiltonian $H_{i}$, and then evolves the Hamiltonian slowly over time to a target Hamiltonian $H_{f}$ via the interpolation ...
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Quantum algorithm of graphs: How to create superposition of paths?

Let us allow path to have same vertexes in it. (defining) So suppose we have a graph of $N$ vertexes and we want to separate it into some superposition of paths that have $N$ vertexes (so if the ...
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Simulation of every physical quantum system on quantum computer

Let me quote from the section 9.3 of Classical and Quantum Computation by Kitaev, Shen and Vyalyi. With high confidence, we may claim that every physical quantum system can be efficiently ...
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From CHSH inequality to CHSH game

I have been going through Certifiable quantum dice: or, true random number generation secure against quantum adversaries by Umesh Vazirani and Thomas Vidick. They have used entangled particles as ...
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Is bounded-error probabilistic computation sensitive to transition types?

In the unbounded-error case, it is known that both realtime quantum and probabilistic finite automata can recognize some uncomputable languages if they are allowed to use arbitrary real numbers in ...
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Impacts of quantum computing on Theoretical Computer Science [closed]

Using quantum computers we can do calculations very fast. However from a layman's view, I want to know the impact of quantum computers have on Theoretical computer science.
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Is there a geometrical picture for adiabatic quantum computation?

In adiabatic quantum computation (AQC), one encodes the solution to an optimization problem in the ground state of a [problem] Hamiltonian $H_p$. To get to this ground state, you start in an easily ...
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Confusion with the proof of constraints for a particular adiabatic quantum evolution

[This might be related to one of my previous unanswered questions.] This proof belongs to the paper, How to Make the Quantum Adiabatic Algorithm Fail by Edward Farhi, Jeffrey Goldstone, Sam Gutmann ...
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Questions about Farhi's pre-Adiabatic paper

I have been going through Eddie Farhi's 6-pages long pre-Adiabatic paper, An Analog Analogue of a Digital Quantum Computation. I guess I understand most of the math and physics but I am struggling ...
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Local Hamiltonian and combinatorial search problems

I was going through the PhD thesis of Daniel Nagaj. At the beginning of chapter two he indicated a relation between the local Hamiltonian perspective of adiabatic quantum computation and combination ...
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Implication of Bell test loopholes on Vazirani-Vidick random sequence generation scheme

I am trying to imagine what would be the implications of the loopholes on Bell test on the random sequence generation scheme proposed by Vazirani and Vidick (VV protocol) in the paper titled ...
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Difficulty in understanding the quantum algorithm for the abelian hidden subgroup problem

I've difficulty in understanding the last steps of the AHSP algorithm. Let $G$ be an abelian group and $f$ be the function which hides the subgroup $H$. Let $G^*$ represent the dual group of $G$. ...
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Is there any task where classical computers outperform quantum computers?

Everybody knows that there are whole classes of problems which quantum computers are able to solve much faster (i.e. with fewer instructions) than classical computers. Is there any problem for which ...
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Sampling satisfiable 3-SAT formulas

Consider the following computational task: We want to sample a 3-SAT formula of $n$ variables (a variant: $n$ variables $m$ clauses) with respect to the uniform probability distribution, conditioned ...
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Relationship between size of quantum superposition and rate of decoherence

I am new here in StackExchange and this will be my first question to ask. I have a background in Computer Science and I am interested in looking into Distributed Quantum Computing (DQC). I have read ...
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The computational complexity of spectral norm of a matrix

How hard is computing the spectral norm of a matrix? This paper says, ... it suffices to say that, except for few particular cases, the Matrix Norm problem is NP-hard. I expected that the ...