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I have seen descriptions for an algorithm that can take a regular deterministic finite automata and create a non-deterministic finite automata that is guaranteed to generate the reverse of string accepted by the DFA. Does anyone know of a "formal" proof that shows this is true in all cases? Guessing induction would be used to prove?

The algorithm goes something like this:

  1. Take original DFA, and change the initial state to the final state
  2. Reverse all accepting states in DFA to non-accepting states
  3. Set original starting state to accepting state and reverse all transitions

Any thoughts would be greatly appreciated!

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If you choose a crisp, symmetric model of NFA $A$ with state set $Q$, where an input symbol maps a subset of $Q$ into another subset of $Q$, with initial and final (accepting) subsets of $Q$, then your sketch is practically a proof. In fact, it will work even if you start, more generally, with an NFA rather than a DFA. (You do have a bit of confusion about final vs accepting states -- they are the same thing, and you'd simply interchange them)

To formalize it, you would indeed use induction to define the transition relation on strings and subsets of states: $\delta (Q_1,xa) = \delta (\delta (Q_1,x),a)$ and the reverse: $\delta_R (Q_2,ax) = \delta_R (\delta_R (Q_2,x),a)$ and show that you get an NFA $A_R$ that accepts exactly the reverses of strings accepted by $A$, the crucial step being that $\delta (Q_1,x)=Q_2 \Leftrightarrow \delta_R (Q_2,x)=Q_1$ for string $x$. Finish by applying that to the initial and final state subsets, which define the language accepted by $A$ and its reverse by $A_R$, string reversal also being given by an inductive/recursive definition.

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