In programming language perspective, what is mean by subtyping? I heard that "Inheritance is not Subtyping". Then what are the differences between inheritance and subtyping?
[I haven't thought deeply about the issues of object-oriented type systems, but I will say what I know to get the discussion going.]
We say that $A$ is a subtype of $B$ if all $A$-typed values can be used in every context where $B$-typed values are expected. Or, to put another way, $A$-typed values can "masquerade" as $B$-typed values.
If such masquerading poses no issues with type checking, i.e., plugging in $A$-typed values where $B$-typed values are needed continues to type check, we call it "structural subtyping". If it cause no issues with behaviour, i.e., such plugging does not alter the behaviour expected, then we call it "behavioural subtyping". (The "behaviour expected" will have to be formalised separately and many notions of behaviour are possible.)
Structural subtyping does not ensure behavioural subtyping because the structure of a type might match for accidental reasons. However, defining the behaviour expected is not easy. So, many programming languages use an intermediate point, where the user has to declare which type is a subtype of which. This is referred to as "nominal subtyping". See the question on Implicit vs explicit subtyping for a discussion of this issue. The idea is that the programmer has to ensure behavioural subtyping for all declared subtypes using his own ingenuity. The language cannot offer any help. However, all declared subtypes must be at least structural subtypes. Otherwise, the program would fail to type check. The language can help ensure this. (Some programming languages don't have good enough type systems to ensure this at compile-time. If so, the type failure would be detected at run-time, or perhaps wrong results might be produced. Such type holes are obviously undesirable.)
When one defines subclasses in object oriented programs, one typically adds publicly visible fields (or methods). In most programming languages, such subclasses are regarded as nominal subtypes. The question is whether they are also structural subtypes. If they are not, i.e., the programming language allows one to declare nominal subtypes that are not structural subtypes, then there would be type holes in the programming language.
In simple cases, adding fields works fine. The type of the superclass expects fewer fields than the type of the subclass. So, if you plug in an instance of a subclass where an instance of the sueprclass is expected, the program will just ignore the additional fields provided and nothing goes wrong.
However, if the superclass or subclass has methods that take arguments of the same type as itself, or return results of the same type as itself, then problems arise. Then the interface type of the subclass is not a structural subtype of that of the superclass. Widely used type-safe programming languages such as Java do not allow such subclasses. So, they restrict the language to obtain type safety. The programming language Eiffel is said to have sacrificed type-safety to obtain flexibility instead. If one designs a strong type system that retains flexibility, one must give up the principle that subclasses give rise to subtypes. Hence the title of the paper "Inheritance is not subtyping". The authors propose a different notion of higher-order subtyping which works instead. Kim Bruce also has a closely related proposal called "matching" that achieves the same effect. See this presentation. Also helpful is a position paper of Andrew Black.
The semantics community is probably at fault for largely ignoring the problem. We have traditionally regarded it as a practical type-system engineering issue that is of little theoretical interest. If that is not the case and there is indeed some semantics work in the area, I hope the other people will mention them.