I am currently studying mathematics. However, I don't think I want to become a professional mathematician in the future. I am thinking of applying my knowledge of mathematics to do research in artificial intelligence. However, I am not sure how many mathematics courses I should follow. (And which CS theory courses I should follow.)
From Quora, I learned that the subjects Linear Algebra, Statistics and Convex Optimization are most relevant for Machine Learning (see this question). Someone else mentioned that learning Linear Algebra, Probability/Statistics, Calculus, Basic Algorithms and Logic are needed to study artificial intelligence (see this question).
I can learn about all of these subjects during my first 1.5 years of the mathematics Bachelor at our university.
I was wondering, though, if there are some upper-undergraduate of even graduate-level mathematics subjects that are useful or even needed to study artificial intelligence. What about ODEs, PDEs, Topology, Measure Theory, Linear Analysis, Fourier Analysis and Analysis on Manifolds?
One book that suggests that some quite advanced mathematics is useful in the study of artificial intelligence is Pattern Theory: The Stochastic Analysis of Real-World signals by David Mumford and Agnes Desolneux (see this page). It includes chapters on Markov Chains, Piecewise Gaussian Models, Gibbs Fields, Manifolds, Lie Groups and Lie Algebras and their applications to pattern theory. To what extend is this book useful in A.I. research?