here is a very detailed history & table of modern computers by By Ulf Schünemann that can help resolve some questions of this type. however its a linear record of facts and in general its very difficult to determine the exact "multidimensional" interconnections between inventors (both theoretical & physical oriented/focused), inventions and ideas; its a big historical project that requires even more deep analysis than just looking at known/written history, and can only inherently partially succeed in definitiveness. see also The Relation between Babbage and von Neumann which emphasizes the similarity between Von Neumann architecture and Babbage differential engine.
conceptually there is clearly a tight cluster between the following work but apparently the exact historical interconnection has never been fully deconstructed (nor may it be possible because recorded history is inherently incomplete and some degree of educated guesswork and opinion is inevitable).
strangely while their ideas are all highly interpenetrating mainly on the theme of what is now identified as Von Neumann architecture, there does not seem to be any strong/known historical evidence (such as citations in papers, notes, letters, etc) they were fully or largely aware of each other. one definitely has to resist the assumption/bias that just because one event happened sooner than another, later researchers were aware of it.
(esp it is known that Zuse worked very independently.) and to be fair, Leibnitz' calculating machine should be mentioned in this list based on his quotations of imagining more general computations possible than those strictly built into his machine.
one could create a historical graph and try to determine if there are any connections between historical points/events and draw edges if there are. such a resource might be as least as illuminating and valuable as the highly regarded Complexity Zoo. Ulf Schünemann's ref seems to be the closest to this in existence but with the caveat its not directly intended for this purpose. again a history of facts is not the same as a map or graph of interconnections.
theoreticians sometimes say certain ideas are "in the air" and there are many famous cases of the nearly-same [sometimes complex] idea appearing in different, largely independent works at nearly the same time. the invention of computers clearly/strongly exhibits this "synchronicity" even stretching over a century if Babbage is fully/fairly considered.
it seems that the "dream" of a computer is old and perhaps very fundamental to the human race and probably inspired by difficult/tedious mechanical calculations combined with the Newtonian mechanistic shift of the Enlightenment, and the metaphor of the "clockwork universe". especially Babbages analytic engine seems like a highly sophisticated/evolved clockwork mechanism.
as other striking examples of theoretical synchronicity from computer science and independent discovery of complex/fundamental ideas, to underline the phenomenon, its now known from a NSA-declassified letter by John Nash (info by Noam Nisan) that he also came up with some of the ideas underlying computational complexity and codebreaking eg one-way/trap-door systems. this letter was written around the same time as the now-famous lost Godel letter also musing on foundations of complexity theory.
another example is Cook-Levin complexity theory of NP completeness. the Levin results were published in Russian and not "discovered" for years later.
essentially, historical awareness seems to increase over time and we now have a very good/detailed picture of the history of computers as far as a timeline, partly because the subject has such massive historical and economic significance during the Moore transistor miniaturization revolution starting in the 1960s (note that much of the secret military work was still classified in the 1950s!).
but that awareness was not as great in prior eras. so to attribute the same detailed historical awareness to earlier workers is misguided, unless possibly one wants to take it as as one of the foremost cases of a phenomenon of Mathematical Platonism.
the closest book to exploring these "threads" Ive found is from Pebbles to Computers, the Thread by Hans Blohm (1987)