Stochastic languages, that is, those accepted by probabilistic automata, are known to not be closed under intersection, union, concatenation, and morphism, even on unary languages.

I have two questions about the Boolean closure of the class of stochastic languages:

  1. Is this class closed under morphisms or concatenation?
  2. Can we show that $\{a^{2^n} \mid n \in \mathbb{N}\}$ is not in it?

Many thanks!


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