A few years ago, I took a class on complexity theory from Steven Rudich, and I remember him giving an interesting lecture connecting statistical tests (as found in statistics departments!) with circuit complexity. I remember him claiming something vaguely like: you could use circuits to abstractly characterize what a statistical test was, and that there were fundamental limits on what sorts of patterns statistical tests could identify.
Unfortunately, I remember neither precisely what his claim was, nor even enough keywords to let me Google for it. Does anyone know what he could have meant, and supply me with some references?
(My apologies for the vagueness of this question: if I knew enough to ask precisely, I wouldn't need to ask!)