In the paper from Adi Shamir  from 1979 he shows, that factoring can be done in a polynomial number of arithmetic steps. This fact was restated, and thus came to my attention, in the recent paper of Borwein and Hobart  in the context of straight line programs (SLP).
Since I was rather surprised to read this, I have the following question: Are there any other cryptographic problems or maybe also other relevant problems, that can be solved in a polynomial number of steps with a SLP and that are currently not known to be solvable efficiently on a "normal" classical computer?
 Adi Shamir, Factoring Numbers in $O(\log n)$ arithmetic steps. Information Processing Letters 8 (1979) S. 28–31
 Peter Borwein, Joe Hobart, The Extraordinary Power of Division in Straight Line Programs, The American Mathematical Monthly Vol. 119, No. 7 (August‒September 2012), pp. 584-592