We will never be able to prove this statement, because we can never be able to know for sure whether we have the exact laws of physics, or just a very good approximation to them. Even if we had a satisfactory theory of everything which we could use to make good predictions about every experimentally measurable physical system, there would be no way to tell whether it was correct or a very good approximation.
Having said that, we are still quite far from even coming close to a proof of this statement. For example, we can't even prove that the Standard Model is simulable by a quantum computer. Jordan, Lee, and Preskill have two papers showing how to use a quantum computer to simulate a quantum field theory which is much simpler than the Standard Model. This turns out to be harder than it might at first appear.