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Let's suppose that $P\ne NP$. Is that possible to solve all the instances of size $n$ of an NP-complete problem in polynomial time using some "universal magic constant" $C_n$ that has a polynomial length $P(n)$? Clearly, if $P\ne NP$ this constant can be only calculated in exponential time and the calculation must be done for each $n$.

Thanks

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    $\begingroup$ Scott Aaronson gave a good overview of these kinds of ideas in his Quantum Computing since Democritus: scottaaronson.com/democritus/lec7.html $\endgroup$
    – Phylliida
    Oct 9, 2014 at 23:19
  • $\begingroup$ If you're only looking at inputs of size n, everything is O(1), with the constant just being the maximum runtime over the (finite) set of inputs. $\endgroup$ Oct 10, 2014 at 3:41
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    $\begingroup$ It is not at all clear that "if P!=NP this constant can be only calculated in exponential time". $\hspace{.38 in}$ It could take something between polynomial time and exponential time. $\hspace{1.61 in}$ $\endgroup$
    – user6973
    Oct 10, 2014 at 4:13
  • $\begingroup$ This may answer your question UNIVERSAL EQUATION - Proof of P=NP academia.edu/8809357/UNIVERSAL_EQUATION_-_Proof_of_P_NP $\endgroup$
    – user25495
    Oct 17, 2014 at 0:40

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Probably not. What you are asking is whether NP $\subset$ P/poly. If this were true, then the polynomial hierarchy would collapse (this is the Karp–Lipton theorem), something that is widely believed not to happen.

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    $\begingroup$ To expand a little, such a universal constant is called (polynomial) advice, and the class of languages which are decidable in polynomial time with access to polynomial advice is called P/poly. $\endgroup$
    – Max
    Oct 10, 2014 at 10:30

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