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I began studying papers about approximate counting and I keep seeing the above being quoted, without further explanation. I suppose the procedure that yields the result is very well known and that is why. Can anyone give me roughly the idea if possible and secondly some references about it?

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Given a set $A \subseteq B$, if you can sample uniformly from $B$, then you can estimate by repeated sampling the probability of the event that the sample is in $A$. That is, you can approximate the probability $|A| / |B|$, which is indeed close to enumerating the elements of $A$, and thus computing its size.

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