Adleman's proof that $BPP$ is contained in $P/poly$ shows that if there is a randomized algorithm for a problem that runs in time $t(n)$ on inputs of size $n$, then there also is a deterministic algorithm for the problem that runs in time $\Theta(t(n)\cdot n)$ on inputs of size $n$ [the algorithm runs the randomized algorithm on $\Theta(n)$ independent randomness strings. There must be randomness for the repeated algorithm that is good for all $2^n$ possible inputs]. The deterministic algorithm is non-uniform - it may behave differently for different input sizes. So Adleman's argument shows that - if one doesn't care about uniformity - randomization can only speed-up algorithms by a factor that is linear in the input size.
What are some concrete examples where randomization speeds up computation (to the best of our knowledge)?
One example is polynomial identity testing. Here the input is an n-sized arithmetic circuit computing an m-variate polynomial over a field, and the task is to find out whether the polynomial is identically zero. A randomized algorithm can evaluate the polynomial on a random point, while the best deterministic algorithm we know (and possibly the best that exists) evaluates the polynomial on many points.
Another example is minimum spanning tree, where the best randomized algorithm by Karger-Klein-Tarjan is linear time (and the error probability is exponentially small!), while the best deterministic algorithm by Chazelle runs in time $O(m\alpha(m,n))$ ($\alpha$ is the inverse Ackermann function, so the randomization speed-up is really small). Interestingly, it was proved by Pettie and Ramachandran that if there's a non-uniform deterministic linear time algorithm for minimum spanning tree, then there also exists a uniform deterministic linear time algorithm.
What are some other examples? Which examples do you know where the randomization speed-up is large, but this is possibly just because we haven't found sufficiently efficient deterministic algorithms yet?