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Is there a known algorithm for sampling a set $S \subset \{1,...,n\}$ with probability $p_S = \frac{e^{f(S)}}{\sum_{T \subset \{1,...,n\}} e^{f(T)}}$ where $f: 2^{\{1,...,n\}} \to \mathbb{R}$ is a submodular function?

Thanks!

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There is a paper by Gotovos, Hassani, and Krause (NIPS, 2015) titled "Sampling from Probabilistic Submodular Models" which describes a MCMC method based on Gibbs sampling. They show that the mixing time $t_{\text{mix}}(\epsilon)$ is bounded above by $$ t_{\text{mix}}(\epsilon) \leq 2 n^2 \exp(\zeta_f) \log \left( \frac{1}{\epsilon p_\min} \right) $$ where $p_\min = \min_{S} p(S)$ and the quantity $\zeta_f$ is $$\zeta_f = \max_{A, B \subset V} \left| f(A) + f(B) - f(A \cup B) - f(A \cap B) \right| $$ which I don't know of appearing elsewhere in the literature. There is another paper by Rebeschini and Karbasi (JMLR, 2015) titled "Fast Mixing for Discrete Point Processes" which proposes a different Gibbs sampler whose mixing time is bounded using the so-called "discrete hessian" which I also haven't seen used elsewhere in the literature.

It seems that submodularity of $f$ alone isn't enough to get fast mixing times for MCMC methods. Current methods certainly need to consider other quantities of $f$ to ensure fast mixing times.

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