What is the number of ordinal trees (aka rose trees) with $n$ nodes, of depth $d$, with $l$ leaves?
I thought that it was a known results but I could not find it, and neither did the various combinatorics whom I asked. It seems that it should be computed using generating functions, but beside the fact that such a generating function would have two variables, there is also the fact that the number of nodes and of leaves are additive between the various children of a tree, whereas the depth of a tree is one plus the max of the depth of each of its children: I don't know how to express those in a generating functions.
The reason I ask is that, when considering (some variant of) the cartesian tree of a multiset in order to support Range Minimum Queries on it, the number of runs in the multisets corresponds exactly to the number of leaves, and the number of distinct elements in the multiset gives a bound on the depth of the ordinal tree: the logarithm of the number of such trees will give a lower bound on the space usage of any compressed index supporting Range Minimum Queries, in the worst case over multisets of size $n$ with $l$ runs and $d$ distinct values. (And, with only a bit more work I believe, an asymptotically tight upper bound.)
Demaine et al define an ordinal tree as "a rooted tree of arbitrary degree in which the children are ordered" http://erikdemaine.org/papers/MaryTrees_Algorithmica/paper.ps. It seems that they are also called Rose trees in some communities. They should not be confused with cardinal trees, also called $k$-ary trees.