In his 1962 paper "The Maximum Connectivity of a Graph", Harary describes a way to construct for integers $p$ and $q$ with $q\ge p-1$ a way to construct a graph with $p$ vertices and $q$ edges that is $k=\lfloor 2q/p\rfloor$-connected. Roughly, the idea is to give indices from $0$ to $p-1$ to the $p$ vertices and then add edges between vertices whose indices (modulo $p$) differ by at most $k/2$ (the exact construction depends on whether or not $2q/p$ is an integer).
One could start with these graphs and then perturb them by adding and removing edges without changing the connectivity. The graphs will not be bipartite, however.
Another easy way of creating random graphs with a certain edge-connectivity value is to exploit those cases in which edge-connectivity and minimum degree are identical since creating random graphs with a fixed minimum degree is much easier. Such conditions, also for bipartite graphs, are discussed for example in the paper On equality of edge-connectivity and minimum degree of a graph by Plesník and Znám.