Let $U=\{1,\ldots, u\}$ be a universe of elements for some $u\in \mathbb N$. Given some $n\in\mathbb N$, we are interested in computing some function $f:U^{\le n}\to\mathbb R$ over range queries.

In the Range Query problem we get an integer array $A[1,\ldots,n]\in U^n$ and wish to compute queries that takes as input parameters $1\le i\le j\le n$ and return $f(A[i,\ldots,j])$.

Consider the function $f$ that returns the number of distinct elements in the queried range.

The goal is to preprocess the input array $A$ and create a small summary that allows efficient computation of these distinct queries.

What is the best known algorithm for the problem? (given a memory bound $m$, what is the minimal query time that is required).


If we allow approximation of the number of distinct elements, can we get faster queries?

EDIT: I have found a related problem discussed in stackoverflow. The answer there shows a $O(n\log n\log u)$ bits algorithm that answers queries in $O(\log n)$ time.

Is this optimal?

Can we get better time/space bounds if we allow approximation?


A sketch data structure is an approximation of a set of elements. Sketches vary in what they store -- some store just hashes, some store elements from the set (a sample), and some store floating-point numbers.

This solution uses the sketch data structure from "A Minimal Variance Estimator for the Cardinality of Big Data Set Intersection", by Cohen et al. It stores $k$ hash values.

Let $I = 2nk/m$. Let $F[t] = \{A[1], A[2], \dots , A[tI]\}$ and $B[t] = \{A[n], A[n-1], \dots, A[n-tI]\}$. Store the sketches for $F[1], F[2], \dots, F[m/2k]$ and $B[1], B[2], \dots, B[m/2k]$. That is a total of $m/k$ sketches, each of size $k$, using a total of $m$ words of space.

Let $r(x)$ denote the value of $x$ rounded to the nearest integer. To estimate the carnality of $\{A[i], \dots, A[j]\}$, estimate the cardinality of $F[r(j/I)] \bigcap B[r((n-i)/I)]$. The Cohen et al. paper describes how to do this in $\text{poly}(k)$ time. The variance of the estimate is a long formula in Corollary 2, combined with the error induced by only using $m/k$ samples, which is at most $4nk/m$.

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