# Properties of toroidal graph

I am interested in work pertaining to graphs that have genus 1 i.e. toroidal graphs. Specifically, i am trying to find answers to the questions below.

1. Since toroidal graphs can be recognized in $P$ , what are some different known characterizations of toroidal graphs ?

2. There are more than thousand forbidden minors for toroidal graph class, and only four of them does not contain $K_{3,3}$ as a subdivision (This paper). Where can i find a bigger list of forbidden structures of toroidal graphs ?

3. Two disjoint copies of $K_5$'s are not toroidal. Is it true that if a graph $G$ have two vertex disjoint non-planar induced subgraphs, then $G$ is not a toridal ? If not, then what is special about disjoint copies of $K_5$'s ?

## 1 Answer

Regarding (3), yes, if a graph $M$ has two vertex disjoint non-planar induced subgraphs $G$ and $H$, then $G\cup H$ (and hence $M$) is not toroidal.

I don't know a reference but here's a proof sketch.

Thinking of the torus as $T=S^1\times S^1$, if a non-planar $G$ is embedded without crossing on $T$ then its edges must meet every $S^1\times\{a\}$ and $\{a\}\times S^1$, or else we cut such a circle out and realize $G$ as planar. By tracing where they so meet we obtain a subgraph of $G$ realized as homotopic to some $$\left(\{a\}\times S^1\right)\cup \left(S^1\times\{b\}\right)$$ (so two circles meet in $(a,b)$). Similarly for the second graph $H$ and say $$\left(\{c\}\times S^1\right)\cup \left(S^1\times\{d\}\right).$$ But then $G$ and $H$ are not disjoint (they share a vertex or have crossing edges) as the embedded graphs meet in $(a,d)$ and $(c,b)$.