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Quantum Computers are an abstraction (a finite circuit of matrices + measurements) that captures the computability properties of local quantum devices.

But is there a notion, akin to "computability", that transfers a wholistic model of the universe (from Physics) into an abstract model into computer science.

For instance, it is natural to ask these two questions: (a) Can the notion of a finite quantum circuit be generalized to a continuous one. The measurements are the quirky part, but the answer is generally yes, resulting in an object similar to a manifold over matrix transformations (but slightly more general). (b) Given you believe in (a), does a "quantum manifold" (specifically its symmetries, i.e. cycles) capture important conservation laws in the computational properties of the universe itself.

Are there be papers going down this path in the literature already?

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