Wikipedia defines machine learning as the "field of computer science that gives computers the ability to learn without being explicitly programmed". A common example of a problem which machine learning is good at solving would be for example image categorization. It would presumably be incredibly difficult to write an explicit algorithm that would analyze pictures pixel by pixel and tell apart dogs from cats, for example, so it's easier to just use some sort of supervised learning strategy and feed it a lot of pre-categorized pictures of cats and dogs.
Now, how to I name this category of problems (e.g. telling dogs from cats)? Is there a particular name?
PS: In case this is relevant, I'm not a specialist in machine learning. My degree is in computer engineering and I work as a software developer but I'm doing a master's in analytic philosophy and I think this concept would be helpful for an essay I have to write for philosophical logic.