The Post correspondence problem has the following version for finite monoids:

Input: a finite monoid $M$ and a finite list $(m_1,m_1'),\ldots, (m_n,m_n')$ of pairs of elements of $M$

Question: is there a natural number $k\geq 1$ and indices $i_1,\ldots, i_k\in \{ 1,\ldots, n\}$ such that $m_{i_1}\cdot\cdots \cdot m_{i_k} = m_{i_1}'\cdot\cdots \cdot m_{i_k}'$?

Is it known whether this problem is decidable?


Yes, it is decidable. Build a graph where each vertex is a pair $(r,s)$ of elements from $M$. Add all edges of the form $(r,s) \to (r m_i, s m'_i)$ for all $r,s,i$. Then, your question asks whether there exists a path in this graph from the vertex $(1,1)$ to any vertex of the form $(t,t)$. This can be answered using standard reachability algorithms (e.g., DFS). The running time is linear in the size of the graph (i.e., $O(|M|^2 n)$), so the problem is decidable.

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  • $\begingroup$ So is DFS faster than BFS here? $\endgroup$ – Bjørn Kjos-Hanssen Aug 13 '18 at 22:50
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    $\begingroup$ @BjørnKjos-Hanssen, no, they both run in linear time (linear in the size of the graph) so their asymptotic worst-case running time is equivalent. $\endgroup$ – D.W. Aug 13 '18 at 23:06

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