I am not sure if this is a cheap query. However I am unable to find this myself. So I am posting here. The standard complexity class is built with $NP$ and $coNP$ and leads up to $PSPACE$. The reference https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2FBF01184809.pdf gives some classes for which we have oracles with respect to which $UP$ is not low.

  1. Which classes are known to be low with $UP$ oracle ($PSPACE$ is one of them)?

  2. Is there a hierarchy to concoct with $UP$ and $coUP$ analogous to the standard polynomial hierarchy and in particular is there an analog of $PSPACE$?

  • 2
    $\begingroup$ I know that if ${\bf UP}$ is low for ${\bf \#P}$ then ${\bf UP} = {\bf CoUP}$. You can read it here = J. KOBLER, U. SCHONING, AND J. TORAN, On counting and approximation, Acta Inform. 26 (1989), 363-379. $\endgroup$
    – Tayfun Pay
    Commented Jul 8, 2019 at 2:47
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ @TayfunPay Very interesting. Then likely that there is an unambiguous version of things and a fewbiguous version of things. $\endgroup$
    – Turbo
    Commented Jul 8, 2019 at 9:44

1 Answer 1


Problem 2. answered in references

a. https://arxiv.org/pdf/cs/9907033.pdf

b. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download;jsessionid=19DD617ABDB31709CA0BEF797C283867?doi=

  • $\begingroup$ Your second reference has a revision, which removes an incorrect proof of "Theorem" 5, among other things. $\endgroup$ Commented Jan 9, 2020 at 15:33

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