Let H(P) be some program that given P('s source code) computes whether or not P terminates, i.e. solves the halting problem. H only needs to terminate if P terminates. (This disallows solutions like making the inner program stall indefinitely so the outer program can always return false.) Does there exist an H such that for all P, H(H(P)) terminates? (If not, is this possible with more nesting? What about infinite nesting, wherein P is started, then H(P), then H(H(P)), etc, and stops once any of them terminates?)
Such an $H$ would let us solve the halting problem:
We begin by running $H(H(P))$ until it halts (which it does by assumption on $H$).
If the output of $H(H(P))$ is "doesn't halt," then we know $H(P)$ doesn't halt, and so by assumption on $H$ we know that $P$ doesn't halt.
If the output of $H(H(P))$ is "halts," then we subsequently run $H(P)$ until it halts; if $H(P)$ outputs "doesn't halt" then we know that $P$ doesn't halt, and if $H(P)$ outputs "halts" then we know that $P$ doesn't halt.
The above procedure always halts and determines whether $P$ halts correctly.
Choose P arbitrarily (since question asks this for all P). Wouldn't constructing $H(H(P))$ already include assumption that $H(P)$ as input to $H$ has source code or other representation that can be tested for termination? If that is true, then $H(P)$ by assumption contains an implementation of solution to the halting problem for $P$, therefore executing that program solves the halting problem for $P$. Therefore $H(H(P))$ returns true. Thus, if $H$ is a termination checker, therefore running with input $P$ produces data as to whether $P$ terminates, a contradiction since halting problem for arbitrary $P$ is undecidable. If $H(P)$ doesn't have source code, then $H(H(P))$ should return false, the halting problem of $P$ cannot be solved by $H(P)$ since it doesn't terminate and your assumption that $H$ is a termination checker is wrong, a contradiction. The remaining alternative is that the arbitrarily chosen $P$ doesn't have valid representation. Thus $H$ validates its inputs and $H(P)$ returns false. But since P was arbitrary we can choose $P := H(P')$ for another arbitrary P' since $H$ exists by assumption so by substitution $H(H(P'))$ is false, but $H(P')$ terminates, so $H$ is not a termination checker, a contradiction.