A rational polyhedron $P \subseteq \mathbb{R}^n$ is an integral polyhedron if it is the convex hull of its integer points. That is, if $P = conv(P \cap \mathbb{Z}^n)$.

Equivalently, $P$ is integral if for any $c \in \mathbb{R}^n$, the program $\max\{cx : x \in P\}$ has an integer optimizer.

Now according to the theorems, to show that $P$ is integral, it merely suffices to show that for any $c \in \mathbb{Z}^n$, the program $\max\{cx : x \in P\}$ has an integer optimal value (whenever the optimum is finite).

Why should having an integer optimal value imply that there is an integer optimal solution? The proofs that I read for this use duality and give me no intuition.

Is there a better explanation of why this is true, or some kind of intuition?

  • $\begingroup$ Here's an intuition. Suppose that some extreme point $x$ of the polytope (that is, a vertex of $P$) is not integral. Let $c$ be any vector such that $x$ is a unique maximizer of $c x$ in $P$. (It must exist if $c$ is an extreme point.) If $c\cdot x$ is not integer, you are done, so assume otherwise. Then let $c'$ be obtained from $c$ by a random infinitesimal perturbation of every coordinate. Then (i) the probability that $c'\cdot x$ is an integer is zero, and (ii) $x$ is also a unique maximizer of $c'\cdot x$ in $P$. So you are done. $\endgroup$
    – Neal Young
    May 11, 2021 at 14:51
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    $\begingroup$ @NealYoung in your explanation the perturbed vector $c'$ need not be an integer vector even if $c$ is. The OP is asking about the Edmonds-Giles theorem which is not as straightforward. A simpler version is that for each $c$ rational, $\max\{c x : x \in P\}$ is attained at an integer vector. $\endgroup$ May 11, 2021 at 15:50
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    $\begingroup$ @ChandraChekuri Oh right. Okay, assume $c\in \mathbb Z^n$ above, take $c'= M c$ for a very large integer $M$. Now take any coordinate $i$ such that $x_i$ is not an integer, and obtain $c''$ from $c'$ by adding 1 to $c'_i$ (and leaving all other coordinates unchanged). Then (i) $c''x$ is not an integer, and (ii) $x$ is also a unique maximizer of $c''x$ in $P$. And $c''$ is integral. (??) $\endgroup$
    – Neal Young
    May 11, 2021 at 17:48
  • $\begingroup$ @NealYoung Yes, that works and is the right intuition. One has to argue that for sufficiently large $M$ the $+1$ in one coordinate does not matter much as far as the cone of directions for which $x$ is the optimum solution. $\endgroup$ May 11, 2021 at 19:36
  • $\begingroup$ Okay I've tried to formalize this as an answer, below. $\endgroup$
    – Neal Young
    May 11, 2021 at 19:59

1 Answer 1


Here's a proof (sketch) that doesn't explicitly use duality. More precisely, it replaces duality by a seemingly weaker (and hopefully easily believable) geometric fact, in Step 3 below.

EDIT: But, per the comment, the proof applies only to polytopes, not (unbounded) polyhedra!

Let $P\subset \mathbb R^n$ be any polyhedron polytope such that, for all $c\in \mathbb Z^n$, the (optimal) value of the LP $\max\{cx : x\in P\}$ is an integer.

Lemma 1. $P$ is integral. That is, every extreme point (vertex) of $P$ has integer coordinates.

Proof sketch.

  1. Suppose otherwise for contradiction. That is, there exists a vertex $x'$ of $P$ with a coordinate $x'_k$ that is not an integer.

  2. Given any cost vector $c\in \mathbb R^n$ such that $x'$ is an optimal solution to the linear program $\max\{c\cdot x : x\in P\}$, say that ``$c\cdot x$ is maximized by $x'$.''

  3. We will use the following, hopefully intuitive, geometric fact: the set of vectors $c$ such that $c\cdot x$ is maximized by $x'$ contains a ball of positive volume in $\mathbb R^n$. (Draw some pictures for intuition.)

  4. Equivalently, there is a vector $c'\in \mathbb R^n$ and an $\epsilon>0$ such that, for all $d\in \mathbb R^n$, if $\max_i |d_i - c'_i| \le \epsilon$, then $d\cdot x$ is maximized by $x'$.

  5. Now define $d' = c'/\epsilon$ (scaling up $c'$ by $1/\epsilon$).

  6. Then, for all $d\in \mathbb R^n$, if $\max_i |d_i - d'_i| \le 1$, then $d\cdot x$ is maximized by $x'$. (Here we use Line 4 above, and that $d\cdot x$ is maximized by $x'$ iff $(\alpha d)\cdot x$ is, provided $\alpha > 0$. We take $\alpha=1/\epsilon$.)

  7. Define $b$ and $b'$ in $\mathbb Z^n$ by taking $b_i = \lfloor d'_i \rfloor$ for all $i$, and obtaining $b'$ from $b$ by increasing $b_k$ by 1. (Recall that $k$ is such that $x'_k$ is not an integer.)

  8. Then $b\cdot x$ is maximized by $x'$ (using $\max_i |b_i-d'_i| \le 1$), and $b\in\mathbb Z^n$, so (by our assumption on $P$) $b\cdot x'$ is an integer.

  9. By the same reasoning, $b'\cdot x'$ is an integer. So $(b'-b)\cdot x'$ is an integer.

  10. But $(b'-b)\cdot x'$ equals $x'_k$, which is not an integer. $~~~\Box$

  • $\begingroup$ I really like this argument and I think I understand the intuition now. Thank you. But I wanted to note: your definition of an integral polyhedron isn't quite right. For example if $P = \{(x,y) : x = 1/2\}$, then all extreme points have integer coordinates, because there are none. We can say instead that $P$ is integral if every minimal face contains an integral point. But this is an edge case and I'm sure things can be made to work. Thanks again $\endgroup$ May 13, 2021 at 6:02
  • $\begingroup$ Oh, good point. This is not a full answer because the proof only applies to polytopes. I wonder if it can be extended to unbounded polyhedra. $\endgroup$
    – Neal Young
    May 13, 2021 at 12:12
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    $\begingroup$ Edmond-Giles theorem is for unbounded polyhedra. J. Edmonds and F. R. Giles, A min-max relation for submodular functions on graphs, Ann. Discrete Math. l:B-204 (1977). There are technicalities in handling polyhedra vs polytopes. Schrijver's books show all the details. $\endgroup$ May 13, 2021 at 15:56
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    $\begingroup$ Your proof works for any 'pointed' polyhedron. That is, it works when every face of the polyhedron contains a vertex. Also, if $P$ has even a single vertex, then it is pointed. $\endgroup$ May 13, 2021 at 19:09
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    $\begingroup$ The general case looks substantially different! E.g. consider some rational polyhedron $$P=\{( x_1,x_2) \in \mathbb R^2 ~|~ a_1 x_1 + a_2 x_2 = b\}.$$ Assume WLOG by scaling that $a_1, a_2\in \mathbb Z$. Then this polyhedron is integral iff $b$ is an integer multiple of $\text{gcd}(a_1, a_2)$. If it isn't, then, by taking $(c_1, c_2) = (\alpha a_1, \alpha a_2)$, where $\alpha=1/\text{gcd}(a_1, a_2)$, we get an LP $\max\{cx : x\in P\}$ with non-integer optimal value. $\endgroup$
    – Neal Young
    May 13, 2021 at 20:41

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