I am dealing with the following problem: Given a universe $U$, let $\mathcal{S}$ be a family of subsets of $U$. Each subset $S\in\mathcal{S}$ is associated with a non-negative reward, and each element $u\in U$ is associated with a non-negative cost. The task is to find a collection of subsets in $\mathcal{S}$ maximizing the difference between the total reward in the collection and the costs of elements covered by the collection.

I conjecture this problem is NP-hard, but so far I failed to prove so. The obvious idea from set cover (assigning -1 to each subset and -infinity to each element) fails due to the non-negativity constraint. I was also attempting to find some reduction from MAXSAT, but also with no success. Does anyone have some hints/ideas? Could this be polynomial after all?


Seems to be in P, as it seems to be equivalent to max-wt independent set (equivalently min-wt vertex cover) in a bipartite graph, which is in P.

Specifically, construct the bipartite graph $G=(U, \mathcal S, E)$ where $$E=\{(u, S)\in U\times\mathcal S : u\in S\}.$$ Make the weight of $u$ equal to its cost and the weight of $S$ equal to its profit. Then a solution (collection $C$ of sets) corresponds to the independent set in $G$ formed by the union of $C$ (as a set of vertices) and the elements in $U$ not covered by any set in $C$. Conversely any (maximal) independent set $I$ in $G$ naturally yields the corresponding solution to your problem (choose the sets in $I\cap S$ and the elements in $U\setminus I$).

Note that the cost of elements covered by sets in $C$ is the total cost of all elements, minus the cost of elements not covered by any set in $C$. So the stated objective (profit of sets minus cost of covered elements) equals the weight of the corresponding independent set minus the total weight of all elements in $U$. So a maximum-weight independent set in $G$ (which can be found in polynomial time as $G$ is bipartite) corresponds to an optimal solution to your problem.


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