Do we know of an oracle relative to which P ≠ NP but NP = coNP?

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    $\begingroup$ Sure. There are even oracles $A$ such that $\mathrm{EXP}^A=\mathrm{NP}^A$; this implies $\mathrm{NP}^A=\mathrm{coNP}^A$ as $\mathrm{EXP}^A$ is closed under complement, and $\mathrm P^A\ne\mathrm{NP}^A$ on pain of contradicting the relativized time-hierarchy theorem. One such oracle (further satisfying $\mathrm{EXP}^A=\mathrm{ZPP}^A$) is referenced in cstheory.stackexchange.com/a/1545; another (satisfying $\mathrm{EXP}^A=\mathrm{NP}^A=\oplus\mathrm P^A=\mathrm{ZPP}^A$ and $\mathrm{Mod_3P}^A=\mathrm P^A$) is referenced in cstheory.stackexchange.com/a/38765. $\endgroup$ Commented Jan 23, 2023 at 14:38
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    $\begingroup$ This also sounds like a good resource: cstheory.stackexchange.com/a/12366 $\endgroup$ Commented Jan 23, 2023 at 14:45
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    $\begingroup$ @EmilJeřábek write these comments as answers! $\endgroup$
    – cody
    Commented Jan 23, 2023 at 18:02

1 Answer 1


Some oracles of this sort were given in other answers on this site:

Note that $\mathrm{EXP}^A=\mathrm{NP}^A$ implies $\mathrm{NP}^A=\mathrm{coNP}^A$ and $\mathrm P^A\ne\mathrm{NP}^A$ by the relativized time-hierarchy theorem.

Furthemore, https://cstheory.stackexchange.com/a/12366 gives a reference to a paper that lists many oracle separations between the most common classes.


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