Taking an introduction to algorithms course, one encounters quicksort, minimal spanning tree, Dijkstra, Ford–Fulkerson algorithm etc. There are also several relatively standard data structures, such as hash maps or prefix-trees, etc. which are not super complicated but not trivial either.
Question: what are some examples of recent (say later than 1990) data structures and/or algorithms which are general enough and useful enough to be included in a modern Introduction to algorithms course?
There are some examples of algorithmic breakthroughs which almost fit here that I know of (I am mainly a mathematician). First one is the algorithm that in polynomial time determines if a number is prime or not. The second one is the graph isomorphism problem, which is shown to be not NP-complete by exhibiting a faster algorithm. Both of these, I kind of disqualify since they are too advanced from a math point of view. I am more looking for examples which naturally fits among the ones listed above (which are hard to come up with yourself, but easy to understand when they're explained).
Or, did our academical ancestors in the 1950s already discover all the 'classics'?