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Given generator $g$ of multiplicative cyclic group modulo $p$ a prime and two elements $h_1$ and $h_2$ such that there are $x_1$ and $x_2$ respectively satisfying $g^{x_i}=h_i\bmod p$ at every $i\in\{1,2\}$, the Discrete Logarithm problem is to find $x_1$ and $x_2$ while the Diffie Hellman problem is to find $g^{x_1x_2}\bmod p$. Both these problems do not have polynomial in $\log p$ time algorithm.

What is the complexity of LSB and MSB of $g^{x_1x_2}\bmod p$? Is it related to or complete in any complexity class? I believe it should be in at most $UP$.

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    $\begingroup$ This problem is at least as hard as the decisional version of DH which asks to distinguish $g^{x_1x_2}$ from $g^z$ for a random $z$. If you could compute the first bit of $g^{x_1x_2}$, you could distinguish both with probability $\frac 12$. $\endgroup$
    – lamontap
    Mar 22 at 19:58
  • $\begingroup$ The problem appears related to the notion of hard-core predicate. A quick search reveals many papers that may contain answers. $\endgroup$
    – lamontap
    Mar 22 at 20:02
  • $\begingroup$ @lamontap Is this true for LSB as well? $\endgroup$
    – Turbo
    Mar 22 at 20:44
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    $\begingroup$ Yes, this should hold for any bit of $g^{x_1x_2}$. Although note that decisional DH is thought to be easier than computation/search DH in certain groups. For a reference, see Section 9.3.2 of this textbook. $\endgroup$
    – lamontap
    Mar 25 at 15:47

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