# Questions tagged [arithmetic-circuits]

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### Integer multiplication when one integer is fixed

$n$ is a parameter in the problem. For every $n$ we pick a random integer $a_n\in\{2^{n-1},2^{n-1}+1,\dots,2^n-1\}$ where $n\in\{1,2,\dots\}$. Problem: Given $n$ what is the complexity of ...
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### Why is HAMILTONIAN CYCLE so different from PERMANENT?

A polynomial $f(x_1,\ldots,x_n)$ is a monotone projection of a polynomial $g(y_1,\ldots,y_m)$ if $m$ = poly$(n)$, and there is an assignment $\pi:\{y_1,\ldots,y_m\}\to\{x_1,\ldots,x_n, 0,1\}$ such ...
1k views

### Monotone arithmetic circuits

The state of our knowledge about general arithmetic circuits seems to be similar to the state of our knowledge about Boolean circuits, i.e. we don't have good lower-bounds. On the other hand we have ...
1k views

### Lower bound for determinant and permanent

In light of the recent chasm at depth-3 result (which among other things yields a $2^{\sqrt{n}\log{n}}$ depth-3 arithmetic circuit for the $n \times n$ determinant over $\mathbb{C}$), I have the ...
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### Arithmetic circuits with just one threshold gate

When restricted to $0$-$1$ inputs, every $\{+,\times\}$-circuit $F(x_1,\ldots,x_n)$ computes some function $F:\{0,1\}^n\to \mathbb{N}$. To obtain a boolean function, we can just add one fanin-1 ...
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### What are bounded-treewidth circuits good for?

One can talk of the treewidth of a Boolean circuit, defining it as the treewidth of the "moralized" graph on wires (vertices) obtained as follows: connect wires $a$ and $b$ whenever $b$ is the output ...
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### Any polynomial which is hard to count but easy to decide?

Every monotone arithmetic circuit, i.e. a $\{+,\times\}$-circuit, computes some multivariate polynomial $F(x_1,\ldots,x_n)$ with nonnegative integer coefficients. Given a polynomial $f(x_1,\ldots,x_n)$...
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### Machine characterization of $SAC^i$

$SAC^i$ is the class of decision problems solvable by a family of $O({\log}^i{n})$ depth circuits with unbounded-fanin OR and bounded-fanin AND gates. Negations are only allowed at the input level. It ...
686 views

### VC dimension of polynomials over tropical semirings?

As in this question, I am interested the $\mathbf{BPP}$ vs. $\mathbf{P}$/$\mathrm{poly}$ problem for tropical $(\max,+)$ and $(\min,+)$ circuits. This question reduces to showing upper bounds for the ...
2k views

### A course for learning algebraic complexity

I want to learn about algebraic algorithms and complexity thoery. In particular, I am interested in PIT. Is there a set of lecture notes, books, papers and surveys for students who have read standard ...
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### Monotone arithmetic circuit complexity of elementary symmetric polynomials?

The $k$-th elementary symmetric polynomial $S_k^n(x_1,\ldots,x_n)$ is the sum of all $\binom{n}{k}$ products of $k$ distinct variables. I am interested in the monotone arithmetic $(+,\times)$ circuit ...
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### Adleman's theorem over infinite semirings?

Adleman has shown in 1978 that $\mathrm{BPP}\subseteq \mathrm{P/poly}$: if a boolean function $f$ of $n$ variables can be computed by a probabilistic boolean circuit of size $M$, then $f$ can be also ...
638 views

### Arithmetic circuits with $\min$, $\max$, and average over $[0,1]$

Consider a circuit that takes as inputs numbers in $[0,1]$, and has gates that consist of the functions $\max(x, y)$, $\min(x, y)$, $1 - x$, and $\frac{x+y}{2}$. The output of the circuit is then also ...
531 views

### Are arithmetic circuits weaker than boolean?

Let $A(f)$ denote the minimum size of a (non-monotone) arithmetic $(+,\times,-)$ circuit computing a given multilinear polynomial $$f(x_1,\ldots,x_n)=\sum_{e\in E}c_e\prod_{i=1}^n x_i^{e_i}\,,$$ ...
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### Straight line complexity of monomials

Let $k$ be some field. As usual, for an $f\in k[x_{1},x_{2},\ldots,x_{n}]$ we define $L(f)$ to be the straight-line complexity of $f$ over $k$. Let $F$ be the set of monomials of $f$, namely the ...
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### Determinants and Matrix Multiplication - Similarity and differences in algorithmic complexity and arithmetic circuit size

I am trying to understand the relation between algorithmic complexity and circuit complexity of Determinants and Matrix Multiplication. It is known that the determinant of an $n\times n$ matrix can ...
298 views

### Generalizations of the determinant/permanent problem?

A tantalizing open question in computational complexity is to understand the 'behavioral differences' between the determinant and the permanent. While the former is computable in polynomial time with ...
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### Implications of Riemann Hypothesis variants in TCS

The over ~1½ century old Riemann Hypothesis has deep implications in mathematics and a large edifice of math theory is now proved conditionally on it and numerous variants. I recently came across a ...
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### Matrix vector multiplication algorithm using minimal number of additions

Consider the following problem: Given a matrix $M$ we want to optimize the number of additions in the multiplication algorithm for computing $v \mapsto Mv$. I find this problem interesting ...
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### Why lower bounds for boolean Circuits does not imply arithmetic circuits lower bounds

My question is why lower bounds for depth 3 Boolean circuits with gates "and" and "xor" for determinant does not imply the same lower bounds for arithmetic circuits over $\mathbb{Z}$? What is wrong ...
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### Complexity of Polynomial Division

Let $P(x)$ be a univariate polynomial with integer coefficients where both coefficients and degrees are in binary and let $q(x)$ be another polynomial also with integer coefficients where the degrees ...
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### Grigoriev-Karpinski for the permanent

Grigoriev and Karpinski (ps.Z) showed that any depth-3 circuit over a fixed finite field computing $\mathrm{Det}_n$ requires $2^{\Omega(n)}$ size. I had the misconception(?) until recently that the ...
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### Reference request: Arithmetic circuit complexity

I am completely new to this field. I want to read the prelims and unfortunately, I don't see any book written for a beginner in this area. Can anyone give me some basic starting points/references(text/...
138 views

### White-box sparse interpolation

Let $C$ be an arithmetic circuit that represents a polynomial $f\in\mathbb K[x_1,\dotsc,x_n]$, with the promise that $f$ has at most $k$ nonzero terms. What is (known about) the complexity of ...
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### Uniformity vs. nonuniformity in algebraic complexity theory

I understand that the study of Boolean circuits and nonuniform complexity classes was introduced to (hopefully) prove separation of uniform complexity classes. In this sense, nonuniform computational ...
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### Lower bounds for noncommutative arithmetic circuits with exact division?

It is known that for general arithmetic circuits there is not much of a difference between standard model and one with division: any circuit with divisions that computes a polynomial can be simulated ...
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### Practical algorithms for finding small arithmetic circuits

I have a multivariate integer polynomial $f : \mathbb{Z}^n \to \mathbb{Z}$ given as either as a circuit or as a list of monomials. I am interested in practical (though obviously exponential time) ...
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### Can a polynomial sized arithmetic ciruits perform integer division?

Can we perform integer division with a polynomial size arithmetic circuit over $\mathbb{Q}$ that takes as input the numerator and denominator?
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### How quickly can we decompose a number into a set of residues?

Basically, if we are given a natural $x$, in binary, with $x < m_0 \cdot m_1 \cdot m_2 \cdot \dots \cdot m_n$, how quickly can we find $x \bmod m_0$, $x \bmod m_1$,..., and $x \bmod m_n$? In other ...
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### Lower bounds for Polynomials computing the boolean functions

Expressing a boolean function $f$ $:\{ 0,1 \}^{n} \rightarrow \{0,1 \}$ using a polynomial $P(x_{1},...,x_{n})$, where $x_{1},...,x_{n}$ may be integer, finite fields, or other fields. One of the most ...
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### Evaluation of an arithmetic formula where the time depends on the length of the arguments of gates

Let $(X,+,\cdot)$ be a commutative ring. Let $|\cdot|\colon X\to \mathbb{N}$ be a function that satisfies $|x+y|\leq |x|+|y|$ and $|xy|\leq |x|+|y|$. We call the function length, and length is always ...
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### About the recent" paper by Razborov in the Annals of Mathematics

Recently this paper on complexity theory was published at the Annals of Mathematics by Razborov, http://annals.math.princeton.edu/2015/181-2/p01. Curiously this seems to have been submitted to the ...