Questions tagged [co.combinatorics]

Questions related to combinatorics and discrete mathematical structures

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4 votes
0 answers
22 views

Original formulation of Spira's Lemma

I'm currently reading the book "Proof Complexity" by Jan Krajíček (2019), where Spira's Lemma is mentioned: Let $T$ be a finite $k$-ary tree and $|T| > 1$. Then there is a node $a \in T$ ...
10 votes
2 answers
348 views

Algorithm to check whether a given set is Sidon

We call a set of natural numbers $\mathcal S$ to be a Sidon Set if $a+b=c+d$ for $a,b,c,d\in \mathcal S$ implies $\{a,b\}=\{c,d\}$. In other words, all pairwise sums are distinct. What algorithms do ...
4 votes
1 answer
191 views

Is Optimal Swap Sorting NP-Hard?

Given an array of integers with duplicates, find the minimum number of swaps to sort the array. According to this question, the problem is NP-Complete but the reference given proves NP-Completeness ...
3 votes
2 answers
156 views

Given a weighted graph with $pk$ nodes find a min weight forest with $p$ components each containing exactly $k$ nodes

Given a weighted graph with $pk$ nodes find a min weight forest with $p$ components each containing exactly $k$ nodes. Does this have a constant approximation? ($p,k$ and the graph are all part of the ...
6 votes
1 answer
158 views

Proving #P-hardness for the number of subsets of a set of positive integers with a sum of at most T?

Consider the given problem: you have a set S of positive integers, and you want to find how many subsets have a sum of at most T. I highly suspect that the problem is hard since a polynomial time ...
2 votes
2 answers
77 views

State machine classes with sub-exponentially growing model spaces

State machines are useful tools for system modelling. They allow for a compact visual notation of discrete systems and provide a formal model of them. However, reasoning about the correctness of an ...
5 votes
2 answers
346 views

Level $k$ bounds in Analysis of Boolean functions

In Ryan O'Donnell's book Analysis of Boolean functions, following Corollary 9.25 the following appears: If $f\colon \{-1,1\}^n \to \{0,1\}$, and we have $\mathbb{E}[f] = \alpha$, then for any integer ...
14 votes
1 answer
826 views

VC dimension of polynomials over tropical semirings?

As in this question, I am interested the $\mathbf{BPP}$ vs. $\mathbf{P}$/$\mathrm{poly}$ problem for tropical $(\max,+)$ and $(\min,+)$ circuits. This question reduces to showing upper bounds for the ...
3 votes
2 answers
197 views

Assignment problem for forming pairs of real numbers

Suppose I have two sets of real numbers, $X$ and $Y$, each of cardinality $N$. I would like to assign these points to pairs $(X_i, Y_j)$ such that the sum of squared intra-pair distances is minimized. ...
3 votes
0 answers
114 views

Computational complexity of finding the $n$th Dedekind Number

Recently, two independent groups of researchers exactly calculated the $9$th Dedekind Number (see e.g. Quanta). The $n$th Dedekind Number counts the number of antichains consisting of subsets of $\{1,...
1 vote
0 answers
61 views

Constructing lossless conductors using zigzag product - a doubt

Reference - this survey: https://www.cs.huji.ac.il/~nati/PAPERS/expander_survey.pdf I am reading the section on constructing lossless conductors using a bipartite variant of zigzag product (section 10,...
2 votes
1 answer
107 views

Shortest Common Supersequence of Permutations

For integers $k$ and $n$, let $P_{k,n}$ be the set of all size-$k$ sets of permutations of $[n]$. The Shortest Common Supersequence for Permutations (SCSP) problem is: given a set $S\in P_{k,n}$, ...
9 votes
1 answer
299 views

Complexity of permanent verification

Consider the problem of permanent verification: $\bullet \ $ Given a $n\times n$ matrix $A$ with entries in $\{0,1\}$, and given $k\ge 0$, does $Per(A)=k$? Question: Is it known to be NP-hard? Should ...
3 votes
1 answer
77 views

Sorting multiple columns of a matrix

Let $A \in \mathbb{R}^{n \times k}$ be a matrix where each column contains all of the numbers from $\{1,\dots,n\}$ in some arbitrary order. For example, if $n=3, k=2$, we could have $$ A = \begin{...
4 votes
0 answers
123 views

Exploding number of homomorphisms

I'm trying to tackle the following problem: given two graphs $A$ and $B$, if there exists a graph $D$ such that $\hom(A, D) > \hom(B, D)$ (i.e. there is more homomorphisms from $A$ to $D$ than from ...
0 votes
1 answer
171 views

An additive combinatoric probability question

Let $A,B \subset [d]$, where $[d] = \{0,...,d \}$, such that $A\cap B = \phi$ and $|A| = |B| = \frac{d+1}{2}$. I was studying the size of $|(2A \cup 2B) \triangle (A+B)|$, where $\triangle$ is the ...
0 votes
0 answers
41 views

Designing Experiments

I have a question regarding designing experiments that i can't quite wrap my head around. The question will be posted as an image below! So the question gives us three factors with a specified amount ...
3 votes
0 answers
112 views

Cover all triangles of a graph with n subgraphs as small as possible

What is the smallest number $s(n,\Delta)$ such that for any undirected simple graph $G=(V,E)$ with $n$ vertices and $\Delta$ triangles, there exist $n$ subgraphs of $G$ covering all triangles where ...
3 votes
0 answers
97 views

Influence for boolean functions on larger domains

Most of the literature on boolean function complexity considers boolean functions on $\{0,1\}^n$, but I am not finding very much about functions over larger (finite) domains. Specifically, fix a ...
1 vote
0 answers
48 views

What are the fastest known parameterized algorithms for Grid Tiling?

Let $k$ and $n$ denote positive integers. In the $k$-GridTiling problem, for every pair of indices $(i,j)\in \{1, \dots, k\}^2$ we get a subset $S_{ij}\subseteq \{1, \dots, n\}^2$ of pairs of the ...
13 votes
1 answer
222 views

Combinatorics of a badminton tournament

Someone wants to organize a badminton tournament, where each match is a 2 versus 2, i.e. by teams. The idea is to have teams rotate, so that you can play with everyone. If there are $n$ players, where ...
0 votes
0 answers
36 views

Let $C$ be collection of subsets of $[N]$. Given, $n\in [N]$, what's the terminology for $card\{s\subseteq [N]\mid n\not \in s,\, s \cup\{n\}\in C\}$?

Let $N \ge 1$ be an integer and let $\mathfrak S$ be a nonempty collection of subsets of $[N] := \{1,2,\ldots,N\}$. For any $n \in [N]$, define $\partial_n \mathfrak S := \{S\setminus\{n\} \mid S \in \...
3 votes
0 answers
27 views

Bound on line with minimum zone complexity in a line arrangement

In an arrangement of $n$ (pseudo)lines, the well known Zone Theorem gives a $O(n)$ bound on the complexity of the zone of any given line (for the purpose of this question, the complexity of the zone ...
3 votes
1 answer
211 views

Cover a graph with complete graphs

I want to find the smallest possible function $k(n,m)$ such that for any graph $G$ with $n$ vertices and $m$ edges, there exists $n$ vertex sets $S_1,S_2,...,S_n\subseteq V$ each with size $k(n,m)$ ...
1 vote
0 answers
37 views

Minimum vertex-separators under edge addition

I am trying to prove the following claim. Let $T$ be a minimum $st$-separator in an undirected graph $G$, and let $x \in T$. Let $S\neq T$ be a minimal $st$-separator (i.e., not necessarily minimum), ...
2 votes
0 answers
43 views

Is there a name and context where function for permutation defined as f(k) = #σ({1,2,…,k})∩{1,2,…,k} appeared ? (Measure of locality)

Context: Thinking on some machine learning questions on comparing the feature importances produced by different methods - the following measure of concordance between two ordered lists seems to be ...
33 votes
5 answers
3k views

Complexity of applying a permutation in-place

To my surprise, I was not able to find papers about this - probably searched the wrong keywords. So, we've got an array of anything, and a function $f$ on its indices; $f$ is a permutation. How do ...
61 votes
14 answers
4k views

Information Theory used to prove neat combinatorial statements?

What's your favorite examples where information theory is used to prove a neat combinatorial statement in a simple way ? Some examples I can think of are related to lower bounds for locally decodable ...
1 vote
2 answers
217 views

How much information does it take to specify, not each member of a group, but any one member?

It takes exactly $\log_2 n := \lg n$ bits of information to specify a number from $\{1,2,\ldots,n\}.$ Likewise, it takes $\lg{n\choose s}$ bits of information to specify a subset of $s$ out of the $n$ ...
1 vote
1 answer
82 views

A bound that follows from submodularity

I am studying Lemma 1 of this paper: The Adaptive Complexity of Maximizing a Submodular Function. The proof appears on page 11. I got stuck on this inequality: where $f$ is a monotone submodular set ...
13 votes
1 answer
436 views

Efficient algorithm for near-optimal edge-colourings of hypergraphs

Graph colouring problems are, already, hard enough for most people. Even so, I'm going to have to be difficult and ask a problem about hypergraph colouring. Question. What efficient algorithms are ...
6 votes
1 answer
495 views

Number of permutations that satisfy a given set of comparisons

We are given a set of comparisons of the form z[i] < z[j] for various i and j and an ...
0 votes
0 answers
42 views

Computing a feasible exchange bijection between bases of a matroid

A base-orderable matroid is a matroid in which, for any two bases $A$ and $B$, there exists a feasible exchange bijection, that is, a bijection $f: A\to B$ such that, for all $a\in A$, both $A-a+f(a)$ ...
0 votes
0 answers
41 views

Combinations of subsets

Problem. Let $x = (x_1,...,x_N) \in K^{N}$, i.e., each element $x_j$ of $x$ can take $K$ discrete values. Let $x_{(i)}$, for $i \in 1,...,I,$ be a vector of overlapping subsets of $x$. For example, ...
2 votes
1 answer
98 views

Bin packing with non-additive load functions

I am looking for information on the bin packing problem, where the load of each bin is not the sum of items in the bin, but some other monotone set function. For example, suppose each item $i$ has ...
1 vote
1 answer
274 views

Number of stable matchings

In the stable marriage problem, is it possible to find an instance with $2^{n -1}$ stable matchings when $n$ is a power of 2 (or just even)? If yes, how? I know how to build an instance in which $2^{n/...
13 votes
4 answers
4k views

The number of cliques in a graph: the Moon and Moser 1965 result

I'm looking for the full text of the Moon and Moser 1965 clique result On Cliques in Graphs (there exist graphs with a number of maximal cliques exponential in $n$). My university's paywall doesn't ...
2 votes
1 answer
86 views

Regularity Lemma for Multi-Relational Graphs?

Is there an analogous to Szemerédi regularity lemma in the setting, where I have multi relational graph i.e. I have $n$ nodes, but instead of having edges to be in $\{0,1\}$ i.e. there is an edge or ...
1 vote
1 answer
184 views

Decomposition of a permutation into increasing subsequences

Given a permutation $P$, the goal is to decompose this permutation into $k$ increasing subsequences $L_1,L_2,\ldots,L_k$, such that every element in $P$ appears exactly once in some increasing ...
7 votes
4 answers
667 views

Small $\epsilon$-nets for points and half-planes without VC dimension

I have recently learned the proof of Haussler and Welzl of the following theorem. Theorem. Suppose we have a set system $\mathcal{F} \subseteq 2^X$, where $X$ is a finite set. Suppose $\mathcal{F}$ ...
1 vote
0 answers
63 views

The "branch-depth" parameter and its use in FPT algorithms

Let $P=(v_1,\dots,v_q)$ be an induced path in the undirected graph $G(V,E)$. In [1], the authors define the branch depth of $P$ to be $b(P)=|N_G[\{v_1,\dots,v_{q-1}\}]|-1$. Further, in [1] it is shown ...
1 vote
0 answers
61 views

The tree augmentation problem, but with hyperlinks

In the (Weighted) Tree Augmentation Problem, we are given a tree $T = (V,E)$ and a set of additional edges $L$ called links with non-negative costs. Each link $\ell = (u,v)$ covers the tree edges ...
38 votes
17 answers
5k views

Conjectures implying Four Color Theorem

Four Color Theorem (4CT) states that every planar graph is four colorable. There are two proofs given by [Appel,Haken 1976] and [Robertson,Sanders,Seymour,Thomas 1997]. Both these proofs are computer-...
2 votes
1 answer
210 views

Maximize a special monotone submodular function - is it easier?

I am looking for a way to optimize the function $f$, defined below. First, fix some positive integer $k$ and let $c_1$ and $c_2$ be non-negative vectors in $\mathbb{R}^n$. Let $g$ be an increasing ...
2 votes
2 answers
155 views

Seeking references on writing a long string $\ell$ as concatenation of shorter strings $s_1, s_2, s_3, ...$

Given: a (long binary) string $\ell$, and a set of (short) strings, $s_1, s_2, ...$ . Can $\ell$ be written as concatenation of the short strings? I am looking for references on: the name of the ...
3 votes
1 answer
168 views

Maximal uniquely decodable codes

This question is about the Kraft-McMillan inequality: If $w_1,\ldots,w_n$ are words of lengths $l_1,\ldots,l_n$ from an alphabet with $r$ letters, which form a uniquely decodable code, then $$ \sum_{i=...
30 votes
2 answers
1k views

Polynomial method for complexity results

Polynomial methods, say Combinatorial Nullstellensatz and Chevalley–Warning theorem are powerful tools in additive combinatorics. By representing a problem with proper polynomials, they can guarantee ...
0 votes
0 answers
46 views

Multi-dimensional 0-1 Knapsack problem with a high number of dimensions

I would like to solve a multi-dimensional 0-1 Knapsack problem, by looking for approximation algorithms with constant approximation ratio if possible. Here the particularity is that the number of ...
12 votes
2 answers
4k views

Find all pairs of values that are close under Hamming distance

I have a few million 32-bit values. For each value, I want to find all other values within a hamming distance of 5. In the naive approach, this requires $O(N^2)$ comparisons, which I want to avoid. ...
19 votes
2 answers
883 views

Axioms for Shortest Paths

Suppose we have an undirected weighted graph $G = (V, E, w)$ (with non-negative weights). Let us assume that all shortest paths in $G$ are unique. Suppose we have these $\binom{n}{2}$ paths (sequences ...

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