Questions tagged [complexity-classes]

Computational complexity classes and their relations

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What graphs on $\mathbb{N}$ can be encoded as regular languages?

Suppose I represent the natural number 0 by "x", and use the symbol "s" for successor so that I get the following encoding of $\alpha : \mathbb{N} \rightarrow V$ of natural numbers ...
wanderingmathematician's user avatar
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1 answer
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Has parameterized complexity led to better algorithms?

I know that for the vertex cover problem, if we know that the parameter $k$ (which is the number of vertices in the solution) is small, then we can expect to solve it feasibly in practice. So far, ...
Felipe's user avatar
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Complexity of type inference in the simply typed lambda calculus

A similar question was answered here: Is simply typed lambda calculus equivalent to primitive recursive functions What I conclude from the answers is that the complexity is that of the extended ...
Yossi Gil's user avatar
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Rademacher Complexity of the Composition with an Indicator

Consider the statistical learning setting where you have an arbitrary hypothesis space $\mathcal{H}$, a data space $\mathcal{Z}$, and a bounded loss function $\ell: \mathcal{H}\times \mathcal{Z} \...
user6952886's user avatar
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Can a NEXP machine simulate invalid queries to a promise problem oracle?

Let $A=(A_{YES},A_{NO})$ be some promise problem (such as xSAT, the Local Hamiltonian problem, etc). Suppose we want to show that a P machine with access to a the oracle A can always have its output ...
Hans Schmuber's user avatar
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Reference to "compressibility" of logarithmic space [closed]

Is there a reference somewhere for the result SPACE($O(\log n)$) = SPACE($\log n$)? i.e. Big-O doesn't matter in logspace since you can compress the space. I feel like this is an elementary result but ...
user59894's user avatar
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Consequences of turning $\oplus \text{SAT}$ into few satisfying assignments

Suppose there is a reduction which, given a $\oplus \text{SAT}$ instance $\phi$, returns another $\oplus \text{SAT}$ instance $\psi$ having all the following properties: The size of $\psi$ is ...
Giorgio Camerani's user avatar
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Counting on grid graphs

Are there problems defined on graphs, such as counting 2-factors, Hamiltonian cycles, connected spanning subgraphs etc., that are in $\#P$ and remain hard for grid graphs? Since there seem to be ...
delete000's user avatar
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Complexity of approximating a real function using queries

Consider the following computational problem, where $I$ is the real interval $[-1,1]$: There is a monotonically-increasing function $f: I\to I$. You are allowed to access it only through queries of ...
Erel Segal-Halevi's user avatar
-4 votes
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Is mathematical proof itself NP-hard?

At the 8:00 mark of this video, he claims that proving things is itself an NP problem. I'm looking for more insight into this. Could someone help explain this concept to me and also provide a link to ...
Atsina's user avatar
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Are all RegExp solvable in O(n)?

I'm wondering if all features, that are often part of modern RegEx engines, are solvable in O(n). I'm talking about features like repeating patterns ([abc]+);\1 ...
Armin's user avatar
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Diagonalization arguments for QMA type proof systems

Diagonalization is a very common technique to find oracle separations. For example, it can be used to separate $\cal{P}$ and $\cal{NP}$, with the essential idea being that of constructing an oracle in ...
AngryLion's user avatar
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Why can MIP be restricted to just two provers?

In several places I see it referred to that the MIP class can be assumed to be two interactive provers that don't communicate with each other, rather than any polynomial number of provers. Why are ...
lacker's user avatar
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2 answers
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Is there an assumption that implies $P=ZPP$ which is not known to imply $P=BPP$?

There are assumptions that are known to imply that $P = BPP$. For example, if there exists a function in $E = DTIME(2^{O(n)})$ that has circuit complexity $2^{\Omega(n)}$, then $P = BPP$ [1]. Clearly, ...
Morgan Shirley's user avatar
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Complexity class of efficient streaming algorithms

Consider the class of problems $\mathsf{StreamL}$ which can be solved in logarithmic space reading the input in a single pass from left to right. In other words: $L \in \mathsf{StreamL}$ if there ...
Caleb Stanford's user avatar
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Is there an analogue of QMA where Merlin gives Arthur unitaries rather than states?

$\def\braket#1#2{\langle#1|#2\rangle}\def\bra#1{\langle#1|}\def\ket#1{|#1\rangle}$Is there an analogue to $\mathsf{QMA}$ where Merlin provides to Arthur single-use access to a unitary operator $U$? By ...
bean's user avatar
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The theoretical complexity of Go - The state of the art

What are the latest advances in theoretical complexity of Go? I know some early works about the complexity of Go: "Go is polynomial-space hard" proved that Go is PSPACE-hard. "Ladders are PSPACE-...
Blanco's user avatar
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Is PP invariant under changing its cut-off from 1/2 to another number?

Suppose I have a fixed family of quantum circuits $\{C_i\}$ for which determining whether the maximum output acceptance probabilities are $p\geq 1/2$ or $p< 1/2$ is PP-hard. Now suppose I have the ...
Hans Schmuber's user avatar
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2 answers
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Order of quantifiers in the definition of NP-completeness: does the reduction allow arbitrary polynomials? [closed]

Arora and Barak define NP-completeness as the following: "We say that a language $A \subseteq \{0, 1\}^∗$ is polynomial-time Karp reducible to a language $B \subseteq \{0, 1\}^∗$ denoted by $A \leq_p ...
Hans Schmuber's user avatar
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Is $L \subset 1NL$ when $L \neq NL$?

A log-space Turing machine has a read-only input tape, a write-only output tape and uses at most $O(\log n)$ space in its read-write work tapes. The classes $L$ and $NL$ contain those languages which ...
Frank Vega's user avatar
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Are there complexity theory consequences of the collapse NEXP=EXP^NP?

It is clear that $NEXP\subseteq EXP^{NP}$, as a TM with exponential run time can simply query the NP oracle with an exponentially long query. However, it's not clear that the reverse $EXP^{NP}\...
Hans Schmuber's user avatar
1 vote
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Sorting using comparisons that are not simple mappings of simple comparisons

The Python language has a sort(x) function that sorts a list based on the intrinsic comparison operator associated with the type of the elements of its input list x. One can also provide a cmp ...
Dale's user avatar
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Problem in deterministic time $n^p$ and not lower

I'm looking for any language $L$ candiate to be in $DTIME(n^p) -DTIME(n^{p-1})$ (it takes at least $n^{p-1}$ steps to determine if an input is in L with a 2-tape $TM$, but L is polynomially solvable). ...
ULechine's user avatar
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Containment problem of an acyclic NFA in an NFA

Let $A$ and $B$ be NFAs, such that $A$ is acyclic. In the general case, deciding whether $L(A)\subseteq L(B)$ is $PSPACE$-hard. However, since $A$ is acyclic, we know that for every $w \in L(A)$, it ...
RaLo18's user avatar
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Randomized Reduction for Maximization Problem

I have two maximization problems $P_1$ and $P_2$ where the decision version $L_1 = \{(x, t) : \operatorname{Val}_1(x)\ge t\}$ of $P_1$ is $\mathsf{NP}$-complete. Let $f:P_1\to P_2$ be a randomized ...
tc1729's user avatar
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What is the difference between ${\bf P ^{\bf FewP}}$ and ${\bf UP ^{\bf FewP}}$?

What is the difference between ${\bf P ^{\bf FewP}}$ and ${\bf UP ^{\bf FewP}}$ ? In other words, what is the language that can be decided by ${\bf UP ^{\bf FewP}}$, but cannot be decided by ${\bf P ^{...
Theodore Payton's user avatar
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BPP fragment of a PSPACE complete problem

Consider a PSPACE-complete problem (e.g., TQBF). Is there a sub-problem in BPP, that is not known to be in P? Is there a general technique of finding such sub-problems? Are any of them "natural" (i.e....
Shaull's user avatar
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If NP in BPP then NP equals RP

I am looking for a reference to the fact that if NP is included in BPP then NP is equal to RP. See for instance these links: https://cs.stackexchange.com/q/80509 http://www.inf.ed.ac.uk/teaching/...
M.Monet's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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The decision procedure of theory of closed real field is in NP-hard?

The decision procedure of theory of closed real field refers to https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decidability_of_first-order_theories_of_the_real_numbers
XL _At_Here_There's user avatar
4 votes
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Terminology: FNP, with P replaced by NP?

Consider these two classes of search problems: Search problems with poly-sized solutions s.t. verifying solutions is in P. Search problems with poly-sized solutions s.t. verifying solutions is in NP. ...
Jukka Suomela's user avatar
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Does Descriptive Complexity techniques have the naturalisation barrier?

I wished to know if the proof attempts at separation of complexity classes via the methods outlined by Descriptive Complexity theorists naturalise? By naturalise I'm talking about the Idea of Natural ...
Ramit's user avatar
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Term for a set that is not immune

At the outer bounds of computational complexity classes are those defined through computability theory (AKA recursion theory). This is where we get the well known complexity classes such as R, RE, and ...
Matthew Ferland's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
430 views

Which complexity class does this problem belong to?

Consider the following problem $\mathcal{P}$. Instance: A Boolean formula $F$ of $n$ Boolean variables ($x_1,...,x_n$) and $m$ Boolean parameters ($b_1,...,b_m$) where $0 \leq m \leq n$. Problem: ...
Giang Trinh's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
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Co-NP definition

The class Co-NP is defined as all the languages $L$ such that $\overline{L} \in NP$. An example that appears in the book of Arora and Barak is of $\overline{SAT}$, which is defined as $\overline{SAT} =...
Apo's user avatar
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1 answer
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Are there common names for the subtiers of PTIME?

We all know P, or PTIME, I think, as a common name for the class of polynomial-time problems. Are there common names for the first few levels inside P; that is, for constant-time, linear-time, ...
Corbin's user avatar
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On complexity class $\mathsf{\Pi_2 L}$

I suggest the following definition of $\mathsf{\Pi_2 L}$ (similarly to the certificate definition of $\mathsf{NL}$): A language $L$ belongs to $\mathsf{\Pi_2 L}$ iff there exists a deterministic ...
Alexey Milovanov's user avatar
10 votes
0 answers
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On Courcelle's question about Monadic second-order logic with cardinality predicates

I have found the following question at openproblemgarden.org: The problem concerns the extension of Monadic Second Order Logic (over a binary relation representing the edge relation) with the ...
Alexey Milovanov's user avatar
8 votes
0 answers
392 views

A canonical complete problem for EXP and NEXP in terms of formulae

3SAT is a complete problem for NP. TQBF is a complete problem for PSPACE. Is there direct way to define canonical complete problems for EXP and NEXP in terms of boolean formulae? I have only seen ...
Turbo's user avatar
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11 votes
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Is unary $\Pi_2$-SUBSETSUM coNP-complete?

Consider the following problem: for given integers $a_1, \ldots, a_{2n}$ and $A$ that are given in unary representation define is it true that for every $S \subseteq \{1, ..., 2n \}$ such that $|...
Alexey Milovanov's user avatar
21 votes
2 answers
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PPAD and Quantum

Today in New York and all over the world Christos Papadimitriou's birthday is celebrated. This is a good opportunity to ask about the relations between Christos' complexity class PPAD (and his other ...
Gil Kalai's user avatar
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5 votes
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Consequences/existence of problems without any "optimal" algorithm

Let $P$ be some kind of "problem" such as addition or graph coloring, that has an input size $n$. Let $S_P$ denote the set of algorithms $A_1, A_2, \dots$ which deterministically solve $P$. Based off ...
Zach Hunter's user avatar
13 votes
3 answers
1k views

A game on several graphs

Consider the following game on a directed weighted graph $G$ with a chip at some node. All nodes of $G$ are marked by A or B. There are two players Alice and Bob. The goal of Alice (Bob) is to ...
Alexey Milovanov's user avatar
-4 votes
1 answer
502 views

what does NP ⊆ DTIME(...) mean?

Recently I've seen inside theory of a paper. This time complexity, DTIME, is completely new for me. Can somebody explain it? Also, the paper shows that the misinformation containment problem cannot ...
Reihaneh Hassanzadeh's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
170 views

Separation of AM and SZK

Are any results on the separation of AM from SZK known (e.g. relativized separation, or a separation assuming one-way functions exist, etc.)?
wfawwer's user avatar
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Possibility of hierarchy with $UP$ class?

I am not sure if this is a cheap query. However I am unable to find this myself. So I am posting here. The standard complexity class is built with $NP$ and $coNP$ and leads up to $PSPACE$. The ...
Turbo's user avatar
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Unique SAT and ETH

We know $ETH$ is a reasonable barrier to solving $SAT$ efficiently. We have $SAT$ reducing randomly to promise unique $SAT$ by $VV$. However we do not know if $VV$ can be derandomized. Given the ...
Turbo's user avatar
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Language in $PSPACE$ and not necessarily in $P$ if $P=PP$?

If $P=PP$ then the counting hierarchy collapses to $CH=P$. Because so many complexity classes are contained in $CH$, this causes most classes to now be contained in $P$. My question is whether this is ...
Turbo's user avatar
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4 votes
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$XP_{\text{uniform}}=FPT$ and update to $EPTAS$ section in complexity zoo?

Complexity zoo in https://complexityzoo.uwaterloo.ca/Complexity_Zoo:E#eptas has the following: $FPT = XPuniform\implies EPTAS = PTAS$. Fundamentals of Parametrized complexity on page $534$ has ...
Turbo's user avatar
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2 votes
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Is the following problem in $coNP$?

Given an $n\times n$ matrix $M$ with $\mathbb Z$ entries is 'does an $\frac n2\times\frac n2$ minor of $M$ vanish?' in $\bf{coNP}$? At least one $\frac n2\times\frac n2$ minor non-vanish implies rank ...
Turbo's user avatar
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-1 votes
1 answer
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Why is $BPP^{NP}$ in polynomial hierarchy? [closed]

Why is $BPP^{NP}$ in the polynomial hierarchy? I know that $BPP$ is contained in $NP^{NP}$, so $BPP$ is inside $PH$. However, how does that imply $BPP^{NP}$ is inside the polynomial hierarchy?
Herman Chu's user avatar

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