Questions tagged [expanders]

An expander is a sparse (low degree) graph with high "expansion," measured in one of several ways; typically akin to the minimum ratio of the size of a subgraph boundary to the subgraph's volume.

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Are all linear-rate and -distance classical linear codes expanding?

Consider a LDPC linear code defined as $\ker H$ for a $O(1)$ row- and column-sparse matrix $H \in \{0,1\}^{n \times r}$ with independent rows. Assume the code is linear-rate meaning $n - r = \Omega(n)$...
8 votes
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improved analysis of spectral gap of zigzag product?

I am reading the paper introducing zigzag products of expander graphs (https://arxiv.org/abs/math/0406038). The paper mentions the following observation in the introduction: Moreover, the variational ...
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Is the following graph an expander graph?

Let's say we have the following bipartite-graph, denoted $G=(L,R,E)$: It has the following adjacency matrix: I am having problems decoding a received word from what I was told is an expander code ...
4 votes
2 answers
186 views

reference request for construction of expanders

I'm looking for a good exposition of the explicit constructive proof of the existence of expander graph families due to Reingold Vadhan and Wigderson. Arora/Barak has a chapter on it, but i find it ...
12 votes
1 answer
495 views

Deterministic error reduction, state-of-the-art?

Assume one has a randomized (BPP) algorithm $A$ using $r$ bits of randomness. Natural ways to amplify its probability of success to $1-\delta$, for any chosen $\delta>0$, are Independent runs + ...
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9 votes
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Random unbalanced bipartite graphs are good small set expanders

My question is about small set expansion properties of random unbalanced bipartite graphs. Fix a positive $\delta<1/2$, and a positive integers $n,m,d$. Let us call a bipartite graph $\mathcal{G}$...
5 votes
1 answer
190 views

Expander Graph from Hypergraph

I came up with this problem while thinking about an optimizing compiler. Let $H$ be a hypergraph. From this we construct a graph $G_H$ as follows the vertices are the hyperedges of the hypergraph. ...
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*Simple* explicit constructions of bounded-degree expanders of "largish" spectral gap

I want to use for some work of mine bounded-degree (balanced bipartite) expanders with "decent" spectral gap. They need not be Ramanujan graphs. I'm ok with a degree that's a constant factor (ideally ...
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4 votes
1 answer
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Can $L=SL$ be shown with the replacement product instead of the zig-zag product?

(This is a bit of follow-up to https://cstheory.stackexchange.com/posts/comments/93266 but is a distinct enough question I though it should be on its own.) In Omer Reingold's logspace USTCON ...
13 votes
1 answer
487 views

What are the obstructions to extending $L=SL$ to $L=NL$?

Omer Reingold's proof that $L=SL$ gives an algorithm for USTCON (In an Undirected graph with special vertices $s$ and $t$, are they Connected?) using only logspace. The basic idea is to build an ...
2 votes
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A random ensemble of sparse boundary operators

The following question arises from the study of quantum error correction, and high-dimensional expanders: Is there an algorithm that for given numbers $n>0,d≤n,r≤n$ samples uniformly a linear ...
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3 votes
1 answer
328 views

Existence of $d$-regular expander graph that can be represented as a bipartite graph

It is easy to derive from the definition of expander graphs that a $n$-vertex expander graph $G$ does not have a $o(n)$-vertex/edge separator. I was wondering if we can build a $d$-regular expander ...
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2 answers
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Are social networks typically good expanders?

I am interested in the combinatorial properties of social networks as graphs. People have looked at things such as the distribution of the degrees, the clustering coefficient and the compressibility ...
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Explicit Ramanujan graph families (Reference Request)

I am looking for a reference for explicit families of $d$-regular Ramanujan graphs for fixed $d.$ In particular, I am looking for a family of $d$-regular graphs such that the associated reversible ...
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5 votes
1 answer
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About some possible optimality properties of Ramanujan graphs

The Ramanujan graphs are optimal from the Alon-Bopanna point of view but.. Is there any sense in which one can call Ramanujan graphs to be the "optimal" spectral sparsifiers? (Reference : http://...
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7 votes
1 answer
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$d$-regular bipartite expander graph

I have seen that there exists $d$-left regular bipartite graphs. My question is do there exists $d$-regular bipartite expander graphs in which both the degree of the left and the right vertices is ...
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1 answer
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Special properties of bipartite expanders

It is well known that expanders, and often the special case of bipartite expanders, have found many uses in derandomization, coding, etc. However, I am curious if there are any special properties of ...
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1 answer
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About the small set expansion conjecture

Given a graph $G=(V,E)$ and a $\delta > 0$ one wants to calculate $h(G,\delta)=min_{\vert S\vert \leq \delta \vert V \vert } \phi(S)$. ($\phi(S) = \frac{ E(S,\bar{S}) }{d min \{\vert S \vert , n - \...
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Spectral Gap in Expander Graphs

Does Spectral Gap remains same after removal of some edges from a Expander Graph ? Suppose we take a d-regular graph and remove m edges from it. For a $d$-regular graph We have $\lambda_1 = d$ and $\...
12 votes
1 answer
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Existence of long induced paths in expander graphs

Let's say that a graph family $\mathcal{F}$ has long induced paths if there is a constant $\epsilon > 0$ such that every graph $G$ in $\mathcal{F}$ contains an induced path on $|V(G)|^{\epsilon}$ ...
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7 votes
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Expansion of the union of two expander graphs

Suppose that $G$ and $H$ are both expander graphs on the same node set $V$ with a second largest eigenvalue of $\lambda_G$ resp. $\lambda_H$. Let $G\cup H$ be the graph on $V$ with the smallest set of ...
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Building a "balanced" universal set

A set of length $n$ binary vectors $\mathcal{U}=\{u_1,..,u_r\}$ is called $(n,k)$-universal if for all $S\subset [n], |S|=k$, $|\mathcal{U}_{|S}|=2^k$, i.e. for every subset of indices of size $k$, ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Expansion vs Sparsest cut

let $G=(V,E)$ and $S\subsetneq V$ then expansion of set $S$ is $$\alpha(S)=\frac{|E(S,\overline{S})|}{\min\{|S|,|\overline{S}|)\}}$$ where $\bar{S}=V\setminus{S}$ and $E(S,\bar{S})$ are edges ...
1 vote
1 answer
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Second eigenvalue and the last eigenvalue

Note : All eigenvalues that I would referring to below would of the adjacency matrix of the graph My question arises from having read about Expander Graphs from a few different sources. The most ...
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Delocalization of eigenvectors in Expanding Graphs

Given an adjacency matrix $A$, can we say something about whether the eigenvectors corresponding to its highest (or second-highest) eigenvalues are de-localized ? By de-localization I mean that ...
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Do expander graphs have the property that with high probability an s-t cut is size min{degree(s),degree(t)}?

If we want a specific example, then how about the Erdos-Renyi random graph?
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1 answer
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Regularity Lemma for Sparse Graphs

Szemeredi's Regularity Lemma says that every dense graph can be approximated as a union of $O(1)$ many bipartite expander graphs. More accurately, there's a partition of most vertices into $O(1)$ sets ...
7 votes
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Minimum weight expander

Expander constructions given an expander which is a sub-graph of a complete graph. Sometimes we don't want to construct an arbitrary expander, want to find an expander inside another given graph. In a ...
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4 votes
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Explicit combinatorial construction minimizing intersection of sets

I'd like to know if anything is known about the following problem: Suppose we choose positive integer $t$ to be constant. Let $S = \{1,2,\dots,n\}$, where $n$ is sufficiently large. Consider a ...
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expansion with respect to p-norms for p other than 2

Suppose I have an $d$-regular expander graph with $n$ vertices, where the stochastic version of its adjacency matrix $A$ (with entries $1/d$ and zero) has second eigenvalue $\lambda$. Let $x \in {\...
8 votes
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Lossless, constant-degree expanders that expand large sets

It is known how to construct "lossless" unbalanced bipartite expanders with the following properties: the bipartite graph has $n$ left vertices, $m$ right vertices, left-degree $D$, and for all left-...
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9 votes
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Pseudorandom object yielding shrinkage in $\ell_p$ norm?

Extractors have the following property: For a random variable $X$ of min-entropy $k$ and a seed $Y$, denote the output of an $(k,\epsilon)$-extractor by $\mathrm{Ext}(X,Y)$. Then $\|\mathrm{Ext}(X,Y)-...
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1 answer
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Combinatorial Expansion implies Algebraic Expansion

Arora/Barak, in Chapter 21, Theorem 21.9, Page 428, proves: Algebraic Expansion implies Combinatorial Expansion If G is a $(n, d, x)$ expander graph, then it is an $(n, d, (1-x)/2)$ edge ...
6 votes
1 answer
263 views

Self-intersecting walk in expander graphs

Consider a random walk in an expander graph. How much time it typically takes to visit the same vertex twice. It seems to me that it should be something between $\sqrt{n}$ to $\sqrt{n}\log n$. Is ...
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4 votes
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Expansion of constant-size sets

My question refers to the expansion of constant size sets of an expander graph. Suppose we are given an expander graph with Cheeger constant $\alpha$. What can be said about the edge expansion of sets ...
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21 votes
2 answers
563 views

Are edge-vertex graphs of polytopes (decent) expanders?

This question is inspired by the polynomial Hirsch conjecture (PHC). Given a $n$-facet polytope $P$ in $\mathbb R^d$, is the spectral gap of its edge-vertex graph (call it $G$) lower bounded by $\...
14 votes
1 answer
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Conductance and diameter in regular graphs

Given an undirected, regular graph $G=(V,E)$, what is the relationship between its diameter - defined as the largest distance between two nodes - and its conductance, defined as $$\min_{S \subset V} ~\...
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Bi-partite expander graphs

My question relates to bi-partite expander graphs, defined as bi-partite graphs on $n$ left vertices, $m$ right vertices, constant left-degree $k$, such that For any linear-sized subset $S$ of the ...
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6 votes
1 answer
361 views

Error reduction with expanders and derandomization

In "standard" error reduction with an expander, if a randomize algorithm uses $n^d$ random bits, we need $n^d+O(n)$ random bits to achieve $2^{-O(n)}$ error probability. Now, if the algorithm has a ...
5 votes
1 answer
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Simple Constructions of Special Graph Families

Consider the following definition, taken from Chung's 1978 paper: An $(n, m)$-concentrator is a graph with $n$ input vertices and $m$ output vertices, $n \ge m$, having the property that, for ...
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7 votes
2 answers
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Terminology for sparse cuts in graphs

I have found some ambiguity in how the graph parameters edge-expansion, uniform sparsest cut and conductance are defined and denoted. My questions are: what are the definitions that best match the ...
4 votes
2 answers
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Resources on Cryptographic Applications of Expander Graphs

I want to read papers on cryptography like How to Recycle Random Bits or Security Preserving Amplification of Hardness. They use random walks on expander graphs. I need a short introduction to the ...
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27 votes
2 answers
785 views

Papers to credit for spectral partitioning of graphs

If $G=(V,E)$ is an undirected $d$-regular graph and $S$ is a subset of the vertices of cardinality $\leq |V|/2$, call the edge expansion of $S$ the quantity $\phi(S) := \frac {Edges(S,V-S)}{d\cdot |S|...
25 votes
2 answers
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Why Ramanujan graphs are named after Ramanujan?

I recently taught expanders, and introduced the notion of Ramanujan graphs. Michael Forbes asked why they are called this way, and I had to admit I don't know. Anyone?
15 votes
2 answers
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NP-hard problems on expander graphs?

In a 2006 presentation titled EXPANDER GRAPHS - ARE THERE ANY MYSTERIES LEFT? , Nati Linial posed the following open problem: Which $NP$-hard computational problem on graph remain hard when ...
24 votes
2 answers
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Space efficient "industrial" unbalanced expanders

I am looking for unbalanced expanders that are "good" and "space-efficient". Specifically, a bipartite left-regular graph $G=(A,B,E)$, $|A|=n$, $|B|=m$, with left degree $d$ is a $(k,\epsilon)$-...
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