Questions tagged [first-order-logic]

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Descriptive Complexity characterzation of BPP

We know of descriptive complexity characterizations of classes such as P, and NP, which use First Order logic, and operators. Does BPP have a characterization under descriptive complexity, too(any ...
6
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0answers
277 views

Reverse Skolemization?

I'm wondering if there are any references on "reverse skolemization", that is, converting a formula with functions into one purely consisting of quantifiers by eliminating function applications. I'm ...
3
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0answers
46 views

Extending the sequential calculus (logic over words) to allow a hierarchy of languages like the arithmetical hierarchy

Let $\Sigma$ be some finite alphabet. Then consider the logical language $\mathcal L = \{ R_a : a \in \Sigma \} \cup \{ <,= \}$ and first order formulas. For a given first order formula $\varphi$ a ...
2
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154 views

Order-invariant conjunctive queries are FO-definable without the order

I'm looking for a reference for Exercise 6.11 from Libkin's FMT book: Prove that an order-invariant conjunctive query is FO-definable without the order relation. All help is appreciated.
1
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0answers
98 views

How does complexity of a counting problem influence wether it admits a closed form formula or not?

In https://arxiv.org/abs/1412.1505, the section "Results on Data Complexity" mentions the fact that since the authors are about to proove $\#P_1$ complexity for weighted model counting in ...
1
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71 views

Constructing FOL formula for which counting is easy?

Given a function free First Order Logic language $\mathcal{L}$ are there ways to write formulas for which counting the number of models for a given cardinality of the domain is easy (preferably exists ...
1
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0answers
117 views

Proof of SAT is complete for NP via first-order reductions

So I have been reading this: https://people.cs.umass.edu/~immerman/book/ch7.pdf I do not understand the proof of theorem 7.16, which says that SAT is complete for NP via first-order reductions. My ...
0
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48 views

How and How fast can we infer a logical formula that expresses a given graph in C$^2$( logic with 2 vars and counting quantifiers)?

In the following paper the author's claim that almost all graphs can be expressed in first order logic with counting quantifiers and two variables. I would like to know, is there any algorithm that ...