# Questions tagged [graph-theory]

Graph theory is the study of graphs, mathematical structures used to model pairwise relations between objects.

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### Why Ramanujan graphs are named after Ramanujan?

I recently taught expanders, and introduced the notion of Ramanujan graphs. Michael Forbes asked why they are called this way, and I had to admit I don't know. Anyone?
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### Max-cut with negative weight edges

Let $G = (V, E, w)$ be a graph with weight function $w:E\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$. The max-cut problem is to find: $$\arg\max_{S \subset V} \sum_{(u,v) \in E : u \in S, v \not \in S}w(u,v)$$ If the ...
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### Pre-order traversal on a search tree

The following is from this year's CS GRE practice test. I've worked through the test and I've been able to understand every question except for this one. Can anyone help me understand what's going on ...
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### Hamiltonicity of k-regular graphs

It is known that it is NP-complete to test whether a Hamiltonian cycle exists in a 3-regular graph, even if it is planar (Garey, Johnson, and Tarjan, SIAM J. Comput. 1976) or bipartite (Akiyama, ...
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### When is relaxed counting hard?

Suppose we relax the problem of counting proper colorings by counting weighted colorings as follows: every proper coloring gets weight 1 and every improper coloring gets weight $c^v$ where $c$ is some ...
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### Hardness of node partitioning under shortest path constraint

Given a direct graph $G=(V,E)$. $\forall (i,j) \in E$, there is a weight $w(i,j) \in R$ (negative weight is possible). A label $l(i)$ is associated with each node $i \in V$. How to assign $k$ (or less)...
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### What is the correct definition of $k$-tree?

As the title says, what is the correct definition of $k$-tree? There are several papers that talk about $k$-trees and partial $k$-trees as alternative definitions for graphs with bounded treewidth, ...
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### How can one construct a densest graph with no k-clique?

Given integers $k$ and $n$ with $2 \le k < n$, how does one construct a graph on $n$ vertices that contains no $k$-clique and has the maximal number of edges? This sounds like basic ...
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### Logspace algorithms on graphs with bounded tree width

Tree width measures how close a graph is to a tree. It is NP-hard to compute tree width. The best known approximation algorithm achieves $O(\sqrt{{\log}n})$ factor. Courcelle's theorem states that ...
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### Number of Vertex Covers and Permanent

Is there any relationship between the number of vertex covers of a graph $G$ and the permanent of $G$'s adjacency matrix?
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### polygonal triangulation and 3-colorability

Lets define polygonal triangulation a triangulation which has a hamiltonian cycle. It's easy to see that any polygonal triangulation is 3-colorable since any triangulation of a polygon is 3-colorable....
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### Properties of Random Directed Graphs with Fixed Out-Degree

I am interested in properties of random directed graphs with fixed out-degree $d$. I am imagining a random graph model where each vertex chooses d neighbors (say, with replacement) u.a.r. ...
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### Removing all but a few cycles in a graph

Let problem $S$ be defined as Given undirected graph $G$ and a set of cycles $C_1,C_2, \ldots, C_n$ in G, find minimum number of vertices that need to be deleted to remove all cycles in the ...
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### Graph Theory Fun Problem

Show that in any graph $G$ with min-degree $k$ ($k \geq 1$ duh!) you can find as its subgraph any tree on $k+1$ vertices. I have not been able to solve the question so far. However, I would like if ...
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### How do I formally describe a rooted, directed, acyclic graph?

I need a formalism to describe the following requirements: I have a graph comprised of nodes and transitions between nodes Nodes maybe one of three types, all are sub-classes of a base abstract node ...
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### Is it possible to have a 4-coloring for a non-planar graph ? [closed]

I have been working on this thread Grid $k$-coloring without monochromatic rectangles, and I am aware that the four color theorem implies that all planar graphs are four colorable. The question is ...
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### Polynomial Time Algorithm for Graph Isomorphism Testing [closed]

"Michael I. Troﬁmov" claims that he has found a poly-time algorithm for graph isomorphism, which works for all graphs. The paper is given in arXiv. The companion website gives a proof-of-concept ...
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### A relaxed Steiner Tree Problem

Given a weighted graph $G(V,E,w)$ where $w$ is the weight function on edges and a subset of vertices $S\subseteq Q$ called terminals, a Steiner Tree is a connected subgraph which connects all vertices ...
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### Global properties of hereditary classes?

A hereditary class of structures (e.g. graphs) is one that is closed under induced substructures, or equivalently, is closed under vertex removal. Classes of graphs that exclude a minor have nice ...
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### Computation of max H-free sets

In a graph, an independent set is a vertex subset which doesn't contain an edge as an induced subgraph. The problem of finding largest independent sets in a graph is a fundamental algorithmic question,...
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### In Strongly connected tournament T.Is it NP-hard to find a minimum number of vertices(V1) which make T\V1 as non strongly connected tournament.

Given strongly connected tournament T.find a minimum number of vertices(V1) which make T\V1 as non strongly connected tournament. I have doubt whether the problem mentioned can be solved in polynomial ...
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### H-free partition

This is a question inspired by the H-free cut problem. Given a graph, a partition of its vertex set $V$ into $r$ parts $V_1, V_2, \ldots, V_r$ is $H$-free if $G[V_i]$ does not induce a copy of $H$ for ...
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### Does this notation have a special meaning?

I am currently reading a paper and I don't know how to interpret this notation you can see on the screenshot. http://moxn.brainex.de/pub/dfg.png Do the pointy angle brackets have a special meaning ...
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### Rapidly mixing Markov chains on 3-colorings of a cycle

The Glauber dynamics is a Markov chain on the colorings of a graph in which at each step one attempts to recolor a randomly chosen vertex with a random color. It does not mix for the 3-colorings of a ...
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### Sensitivity of Graph Properties

In [1], Turan shows that the sensitivity (called "critical complexity" in the paper) of a graph property is strictly greater than $\lfloor {1\over 4} m \rfloor$ where $m$ is the number of vertices in ...
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### Have any generalizations of maximum weight matching been studied?

For example, one way to view maximum weight matching is that each vertex $v$ gets a utility $f_v= w(e_v)$ that equals the weight of the edge it's matched on, and zero otherwise. accordingly, a ...
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### Construction of graphs where every pair of vertices have an unique common neighbor

Let $G$ be a simple graph on $n$ vertices $(n > 3)$ with no vertex of degree $n − 1$. Suppose that for any two vertices of $G$, there is a unique vertex adjacent to both of them. It is an exercise ...
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### Data for testing graph algorithms

I am looking for a source of huge data sets to test some graph algorithm implemention. Please also provide some information about the type/distribution (e.g. directed/undirected, simple/not simple, ...
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### Given a weighted dag, is there an O(V+E) algorithm to replace each weight with the sum of its ancestor weights?

The problem, of course, is double counting. It's easy enough to do for certain classes of DAGs = a tree, or even a serial-parallel tree. The only algorithm I have found which works on general DAGs in ...
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