# Questions tagged [lo.logic]

Computational and mathematical logic.

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### Are there logical devices similar to "existential variables" or "blank nodes" of Semantic Web?

In Semantic Web, alongside permanent names of things also "temporary names" named "existential variables" or "blank nodes" denoted as "_:label" are used. All ...
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### Examples of simulations in proof complexity that are not p-simulations

I am writing a paper on the complexity of some unorthodox proof systems, where I have two systems $P$ and $Q$ such that $P$ simulates $Q$ in the sense of it being possible to translate a $Q$-proof ...
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### Looking for some lecture videos on logic, models of computation and computational complexity/tcs fundamentals [closed]

Looking for some lecture videos (introductory level) on logic, models of computation as well as computational complexity/ other theoretical computer science fundamentals
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### Variable wire weights in DLOGTIME-uniform circuits

The definition of a $DLOGTIME$-uniform circuit family is based on a Turing machine that accepts the language $\langle t, a, b \rangle$, where gate $a$ is of type $t$ and has gate $b$ as a child, ...
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### Complexity class name for the class of languages that are $\Sigma^1_1$-definable over finite domains

Let ${\cal L}=\{Y_1,..., Y_k, X\}$ be a finite relational language such that $X$ is a unary relation name. Let $\phi(X,\bar{Y})\in{\cal L}$ be a first-order formula (the formula can have the equality ...
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### Decidability of diophantine equations over {=, +, gcd}

It is well-known that polynomial diophantine equations are undecidable (Hilbert's 10th problem): that is, given a quantifier-free formula over the language $\{=, +, \cdot, 1\}$ (of equality, addition, ...
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### Proof of $DLOGTIME-CC^0 = MOD[<,bit]$

Let $CC^0[m]$ be the class of constant-depth, polynomial-sized circuits consisting entirely of $MOD_m$ gates, which put out $1$ iff the sum of their inputs $\equiv 0~(\textrm{mod}~m)$. In the same way ...
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### $\mathit{FO}[+,\times]$ seems more powerful than $\mathit{DLOGTIME}$-uniform $\mathit{AC}^0$?

I’ve been reading up on the connection between first order logic and small circuit complexity classes, and specifically Barrington, Immerman, and Straubing’s paper “On Uniformity Within $\mathit{NC}^1$...
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### Is every countable, finite-branching LTS bisimilar to a tree?

Let $L$ be a finite set of labels, and let $\mathcal{C}$ be the set of finitely-branching transition systems labeled by $L$ and with a countable set of states. Let $\sim$ denote the bisimulation ...
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### Is modal $\mu$-calculus "equivalent" to bisimulation?

I know that propositional modal $\mu$-calculus $L\mu$ is bisimulation-invariant. However, I'm curious to what degree it captures bisimulation. Q1: Given two labeled transition systems $T_1$, $T_2$ ...
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### Alternative exponential definition of Kolmogorov complexity

In Kikuchi's paper Kolmogorov complexity and the second incompleteness theorem the Kolmogorov Complexity (KC) of $x$ is defined as $$K(x) = \mu e (\varphi_e(0) \simeq x) \, ,$$ the smallest $e$ such ...
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### Uncountability in intuitionistic logic

I've read snippets here and there that inside intuitionistic logic, uncountable can be a subset of the naturals ? What is the correct intuition to think about this? Andrej Bauer replied above, saying ...
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### Order-invariant conjunctive queries are FO-definable without the order

I'm looking for a reference for Exercise 6.11 from Libkin's FMT book: Prove that an order-invariant conjunctive query is FO-definable without the order relation. All help is appreciated.
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### Is Scott's reduction sound for $\mathrm{FO}^2$ with equality?

As per this paper by Grädel, Kolaitis and Moshe Vardi, they discuss computational complexity of satisfiability problem in $\mathrm{FO^2}$, In order to do this they use Scott's reduction. Which is the ...
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### Does focused proof search ever have to backtrack across the choice of focus formula?

There are a lot of different "focused" sequent calculi for lots of different logics, but my understanding is that many or most of them have the following flavor. First one divides the ...
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### Normal forms for counting quantifiers?

In the paper by [Erich Grädel and Martin Otto], the authors state that any formula in First Order Logic with two variables with counting quantifiers can be reduced to a formula of the form  \forall ...
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### Categorical equivalent of higher order logic

From Simply typed lambda calculus and higher order logic, I get the impression that HOL is STLC + equality + equality axioms. I was wondering if there is a particular kind of category modelling this.
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### Is there a language of first-order logic such that every r.e. set is Turing-equivalent to some finitely axiomatizable theory in that language?

I hope that mathematical logic / recursion theory type questions are welcome here. I am sorry this question is so long and technical, but I believe that if you read it you will find that it is well-...
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### Why REFL rule is primitive in HOL Light?

HOL Light assumed REFL as a primitive. Why does it need to do so? Can't REFL rule be deduced in this way using ...
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### Logic of learning

Does Robust logic (Leslie Valiant), Default logic (Raymond Reiter) and Circumscription logic (John McCarthy) have any relation? I was Mathematician and Computer Science (dual degree undergraduate) ...
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### What is FO(REGULAR)? (The descriptive complexity equivalent of NC1)

According to Immerman's Descriptive Complexity diagram, there is a logic called $\mathsf{FO(REGULAR)}$ which captures $\mathsf{NC}^1$. However, I can't find the reference where this logic is defined. ...
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### FO(TC) lower bounding games?

Is anyone aware of any games/algebraic structures that provide lower-bounding methodologies for $FO(TC)$ formulae? I am aware of EF games as they apply to first-order and second-order statements, but ...
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### What is the complexity of checking equivalence of two boolean formulae without NOT symbol?

Suppose I have two boolean formulae (propositions) $P_1$, and $P_2$ (can be assumed to be in CNF) over the same variables and such that there are no "NOT" symbols used. I.e. only conjunction and ...
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### How do computers check if two functions are the same?

To prove that two given functions are the same involves proving infinitely many statements. I wonder how to implement so that a computer can check such a statement? An easy example is the following: ...
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### Fagin's Theorem implications

I was going through Fagin's Theorem (summary on wiki) and if I understood correctly Existential Second Order Logic (ESO) can be used to represent any NP problem, the same can be said for a Non-...
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### Cover set of Boolean formulas with conjunctions

I want to cover a set of Boolean formulas (over the same variables) with disjunctive conjunctions. Here's an example with two formulas $p_1$ and $p_2$ over the set of variables $\{A, B, X, Y\}$: I ...
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I have found the following question at openproblemgarden.org: The problem concerns the extension of Monadic Second Order Logic (over a binary relation representing the edge relation) with the ...
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