# Questions tagged [lo.logic]

Computational and mathematical logic.

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### What is the background in algebraic geometry and representation theory needed for geometric complexity theory? [duplicate]

I'm a mathematics student in my junior year and I'm interested in computational complexity and specially geometric complexity theory. I'm going to learn algebraic geometry and representation theory ...
90 views

### Is there a signature of a first-order language that characterize the class of regular languages?

A previous question on this site was about extending the first-order logic with logical constants (quantifiers, fixed-point operators, etc.) to obtain a logical characterization of the class of ...
194 views

### Formal definition of Turing Completeness [closed]

Wikipedia states: In computability theory, a system of data-manipulation rules […] is said to be Turing complete or computationally universal if it can be used to simulate any single-taped Turing ...
114 views

### Sequent calculus for nonmonotonic/defeasible logics?

Is it possible to construct sequent calculus for nonmonotonic/defeasible logic? If it is possible then those logics can be encoded in proof assistants which require sequent calculus for logic to be ...
128 views

### Complexity of validity of first-order logic over finite words with bounded quantifier alternation?

I'm concerned with the validity problem for sentences of first-order logic over finite words, i.e. $FO[\le]$ interpreted over finite subsets of $\mathbb{N}$. AFAIK it should be nonelementary. However,...
155 views

### Connection between nonmonotonic logic and type theory (lambda calculus)

There is known connection between classical and modal logics and type theory (lambda calculus), but are there connections between nonmonotonic logics (e.g. defeasible logic) and type theory (lambda ...
129 views

### Evaluating boolean formula without knowing all values

I am looking for research approaches for the following problem: assume we have a set of $m$ computers, each carries a bit, and a Boolean formula $\varphi$ over those $m$ variables. The computers are ...
142 views

### Boundary between decidability and undecidability for small theories

There is a lot of research on the boundary between decidability and undecidability of the halting problem for small models of computation: Turing machines, tag systems, CAs, ... This boundary is ...
281 views

### Incomplete basis of combinators

This is inspired by this question. Let $\mathcal{C}$ be the collection of all combinators which only have two bound variables. Is $\mathcal{C}$ combinatorially complete? I believe the answer is ...
235 views

### Damas-Milner-like subset of the calculus of constructions with global type inference

Damas-Milner is a subset of System Fω that gives up expressivity (type-level computation) for usability (type inference). The experience with Haskell and ML attests to the practical value of this ...
133 views

### Consistency of MSOL over trees

I couldn't find any source speaking about the consistency of [Weak] Monadic Second Order Logic over Binary Trees (or over graphs with finite tree/clique width). I did find decidability results, and it ...
270 views

### MLTT vs. [weak] MSOL

I've noted that both Martin-Lof type theory and [Weak] Monadic Second-Order logic (eg over trees) enjoy the ability to express basically any finite computer program, in a decidable manner. I was ...
337 views

### Standard reference for basic model theory definitions

I am trying to give a formal presentation of the model-theoretical semantics of a language and I am a bit lost in the terminology. In particular, could somebody clarify the exact definitions of model-...
323 views

### Is there a good notion of non-termination and halting proofs in type theory?

Constructive type theory with its basic interpretation under the curry howard correspondence consists only of total, computable functions. In the literature, some has been said on using "computational ...
748 views

### Can you explain an intuition behind Coherent Spaces?

Linear Logic is interpreted using Coherent spaces, and they feature prominently in Girard's papers. I know all the three main ways to formally define them, and they don't really pose any problem to ...
621 views

### What is the difference between unification and anti-unification?

I understand that in Unification we try to find a general solution to an equation between two terms, but what is anti-unification, and how is it different?
199 views

### In regards to the tautologies of a polynomially-bounded propositional proof system

In the book 'Logical Foundations of Proof Complexity', co-authored by Stephen Cook, the following definition is given: A proof-system $F$ is said to be polynomially-bounded if there is a polynomial p(...
89 views

### How to model degree variable in logic (new type of modal logic?)?

I am trying to model domain in logic (first order logic or some of modal logics) and I have variable which is degree and not true-false variable. There can be different conclusions depending on the ...
101 views

### On the difference between propositional proof system and polynomially-bounded proof system

For the definition of a propositional proof system we have: An abstract proof system is a polynomial time function f whose range is equal to the set of tautologies. If τ is a tautology, then an f-...
112 views

### How to specify and verify Horn clauses (logic programming programs)? Semantics of Horn clauses

There are lot of applications of Horn clauses (notable examples include use of rules in cognitive architectures and knowledge bases, as well as use of rules in business rules programs). Are there ...
154 views

### The evaluation problem for AC$^0_d$ formulas is in FO

Let $d \in \mathbb{N}$ be arbitrary. Let $\mathsf{AC^0_d}$-Eval be the following promise problem: Input: A depth $d$ formula $\varphi(x)$ and a binary string $a$. Output: $\varphi(a)$ I am looking ...
365 views

### Minor closed properties that are explicitly MSO expressible

Below, MSO denotes the monadic second order logic of graphs with vertex-set and edge-set quantifications. Let $\mathcal{F}$ be a minor closed family of graphs. It follows from Robertson and Seymour'...
441 views

### Contradiction between Gödel's Second Incompleteness Theorem and the Church-Rosser's property of CIC?

On one hand, Gödel's Second Incompleteness Theorem states that any consistent formal theory that is strong enough to express any basic arithmetical statements can't prove its own consistency. On the ...