Questions tagged [lower-bounds]

questions about lowerbounds on functions, usually the complexity of an algorithm or a problem

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15 votes
2 answers
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Law of the Excluded Middle in complexity theory

A recent blog post by Lance Fortnow discusses non-constructive proofs, where "non-constructive" here means that the law of the excluded middle is used in a substantive way. That is, one ...
17 votes
4 answers
1k views

How can I show a Gap-P problem is outside #P

There are a number of problems in combinatorial representation theory and algebraic geometry for which no positive formula is known. There are several examples I am thinking of, but let me take ...
1 vote
1 answer
81 views

Is there a conditional lower bound for the k max subarray sum problem?

Consider an array $A$ of integers of length $n$. The $k$-max subarray sum asks us to find up to $k$ (contiguous) non-overlapping subarrays of $A$ with maximum sum. If $A$ is all negative then this ...
4 votes
1 answer
179 views

Is there a lower bound for the problem of finding the best straight line partition

I recently asked the following algorithms question on another site. The best answer so far is $O(n^4)$ time. The input is of size $O(n^2)$ and the output is just a number so I was wondering if there ...
16 votes
1 answer
892 views

Is Dynamic Programming never weaker than Greedy?

In the circuit complexity, we have separations between powers of various circuit models. In the proof complexity, we have separations between powers of various proof systems. But in the algorithmic,...
0 votes
1 answer
121 views

Confusion about lower bounds and upper bounds in learning theory

In computer science, lower bounds and upper bounds are defined as follow: $$m \geq g(n) \implies m = \Omega(g(n))$$ $$m \leq g(n) \implies m = \mathcal{O}(g(n))$$ However, in proving lower bounds and ...
17 votes
2 answers
1k views

Is there a SETH (Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis) for CSP (Constraint Satisfaction Problem)?

The Constraint Satisfaction Problem I mentioned is similar to CNF-SAT: A variable can take values from some finite domain $D$ where $|D| = d$. A literal of variable $x$ is an expression of the form $x\...
4 votes
1 answer
116 views

Lower bound for constant degree monotone arithmetic circuits

Do we know an explicit constant degree polynomial that requires monotone arithmetic circuits of size $n^{10}$?
5 votes
1 answer
157 views

Arithmetic Circuit Hierarchy?

The answers to the following question - Hierarchy theorem for circuit size give a "circuit hierarchy theorem" for boolean circuits. Does there exist a similar hierarchy theorem for ...
1 vote
0 answers
83 views

Conditional lower bounds for reachability

Are there conditional lower bounds for the deterministic time complexity of directed reachability algorithms? Maybe something linked to the Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis (SETH)? I mean some ...
1 vote
0 answers
42 views

How to understand this evolutionary algorithm lower bound calculation?

I have a proof that I understand the most of it except one step Lemma 10. The expected number of steps the $(1+1)$ EA takes to optimize a linear function with all non-zero weights is $\Omega(n \ln n)$....
0 votes
0 answers
20 views

The minimal number of messages required to solve the mutual exclusion problem in a symmetric distributed system

In the seminal paper introducing their namesake algorithm for solving the mutual exclusion problem in a distributed system, Ricart and Agrawala assert (in the first paragraph of section 4 Message ...
6 votes
1 answer
578 views

Find odd-ranked numbers from a list

From a list of $n$ distinct numbers, I want to find the set consisting of all odd-ranked numbers (1st, 3rd, 5th, ...). How many comparison queries do I need? I could sort the whole list using $O(n\log ...
6 votes
0 answers
164 views

Are exponential lower bounds known against $MOD_6 \circ MOD_3$ circuits computing $OR$?

Background What is currently known for depth-2 $CC^0$ circuits with restricted gate types: In [1] it is shown that $(MOD_p)^k \circ MOD_m$ circuits (that is, $k$ layers of $MOD_p$ gates at the output)...
14 votes
1 answer
392 views

What is (a reasonable conjectured lower bound on) the query complexity of solving an $n\times n$ system of linear equations given space $O(n)$?

I am faced with the following problem: A uniformly random $n \times n$ matrix $M$ over a finite field $\mathbb{F}$ is sampled. The algorithm has oracle access to the matrix entries, and each query to ...
2 votes
1 answer
140 views

Counting argument for LTF circuits

In Boolean circuit complexity, Shanon's counting argument shows that a random Boolean function on $n$-input bits requires a circuit of size $\Omega(2^n/n)$ to be computed by a circuit made of AND, OR ...
20 votes
4 answers
1k views

Parity and $AC^0$

Parity and $AC^0$ are like inseparable twins. Or so it has seemed for the last 30 years. In the light of Ryan's result, there will be renewed interest in the small classes. Furst Saxe Sipser to Yao ...
123 votes
18 answers
10k views

Examples of the price of abstraction?

Theoretical computer science has provided some examples of "the price of abstraction." The two most prominent are for Gaussian elimination and sorting. Namely: It is known that Gaussian ...
5 votes
2 answers
149 views

Time/space lower bounds on Majority (in the multitape TM model)

MAJORITY is the language of bitstrings where more than half of the bits are 1s. I'm interested in lower bounds in the multitape TM model. This can be solved in $DTISP(O(n), O(\log(n))$ with a naive ...
14 votes
1 answer
353 views

Reference to lower bound on separator in a grid?

It is easy to verify that given the d dimensional grid of the integer points $\{1,\ldots,n\}^d$, with the regular adjacency, one can find a separator of size $n^{d-1}$ (just pick any middle hyperplane,...
4 votes
0 answers
216 views

Exact lower bound on matrix multiplication

The recent publication in Nature of "Discovering faster matrix multiplication algorithms with reinforcement learning" by Fawzi et al. has shown a method for discovering fewer element ...
39 votes
9 answers
4k views

Optimal greedy algorithms for NP-hard problems

Greed, for lack of a better word, is good. One of the first algorithmic paradigms taught in introductory algorithms course is the greedy approach. Greedy approach results in simple and intuitive ...
5 votes
1 answer
322 views

Deciding if all matrix multiplication entries have at least two witnesses

Consider two square matrices $A(x,y)$ and $B(y,z)$ of dimensions $N×N$ containing boolean entries. Consider the output product matrix $C(x,z)$ where $C=AB$ (not boolean matrix multiplication but the ...
12 votes
2 answers
691 views

Quadratic lower bound

Consider three arrays $A,B,C$ of size $N$ consisting of integers. I want to verify the following constraint: for any two indices $0 \leq i,j < N$, $A[i] < A[j] \land B[i] < B[j] \implies C[i] ...
12 votes
2 answers
642 views

Which problems in computational geometry or graph theory are believed to be $\Omega(n^3)$?

This is intended as a follow up question to Robin Kothari's previous post on polynomial time hardness results. Specifically, I'm interested in seeing some hardness proofs for problems that are ...
2 votes
2 answers
461 views

Trying to understand the intuition behind Yao's Minimax Principle

$\newcommand{\A}{\mathcal{A}}\newcommand{\I}{\mathcal{I}}\newcommand{\E}{\mathbb{E}}\newcommand{\C}[2]{C(I_{#1},A_{#2})}$The question that I am wondering in this post is if there is any intuition to ...
4 votes
0 answers
83 views

Universal Relation

In the paper Tight Bounds for Lp Samplers, Finding Duplicates in Streams, and Related Problems, the authors consider the universal relation problem in 2-party communication complexity, which is ...
3 votes
1 answer
197 views

Sample complexity lower bound to learn the mode (the value with the highest probability) of a distribution with finite support

Say we have a black-box access to a distribution $\mathcal{D}$ with finite support $\{1,2,...,n\}$ with probability mass function $i \mapsto p_i$. How many samples of $\mathcal{D}$ are needed to learn ...
2 votes
1 answer
152 views

Is the center of a BFS tree a good approximation of the graphs center?

Given a graph $G=(V,E)$, a center is a vertex $v\in V$ with minimal eccentricity (i.e., $v\in\text{argmin}_v\max_u d(u,v)$). Finding the center of the graph can easily be done using all-pairs-shortest-...
3 votes
0 answers
49 views

Online assignment lower bound results

I am reading the following paper which presents a $(1-\epsilon)$-competitive online algorithm for the MaxMin (similar to the makespan) problem, defined as follows: a set of requests are arriving in an ...
18 votes
2 answers
1k views

Status on circuit lower bounds for polylog-bounded depth circuits

Bounded depth circuit complexity is one of the main areas of research within circuit complexity theory. This topic has origins in results like "the parity function is not in $AC^{0}$" and "the mod $p$ ...
25 votes
1 answer
1k views

Why is HAMILTONIAN CYCLE so different from PERMANENT?

A polynomial $f(x_1,\ldots,x_n)$ is a monotone projection of a polynomial $g(y_1,\ldots,y_m)$ if $m$ = poly$(n)$, and there is an assignment $\pi:\{y_1,\ldots,y_m\}\to\{x_1,\ldots,x_n, 0,1\}$ such ...
8 votes
0 answers
151 views

What is the least compressible probability distribution? (under entropy constraint, for an expected squared error metric)

Consider a distribution $\mathcal D$ over the reals, a real parameter $H\in\mathbb R^+$, and an integer parameter $k\in\mathbb N$. The Entropy-Constrained Quantization problem asks what is the best ...
6 votes
1 answer
222 views

Lower bound for the OR problem

Let us have booleans $x_1, \cdots, x_n$. Any algorithm that determines $\bigvee_1^n x_i$ with probability at least $2/3$ requires $\Omega(n)$ time. It is not too difficult to prove this, but the proof ...
11 votes
1 answer
1k views

What are the current best known upper and lower bounds on the (un)satisfiability threshold for random k-sat and/or 3-sat?

I would like to know the current state of the phase transition for random k-sat, given n variables and m clauses, what is the best known c=m/n for upper and lower bounds.
2 votes
1 answer
201 views

Divide and Conquer Algorithm for 1-Median Problem

Let $P_1$ and $P_2$ be two disjoint point sets in $\mathbb{R}^d$ and $n = \vert P_1\vert = \vert P_2\vert$ and $P = P_1\cup P_2$. Let $c^\star$ be the optimal 1-median for $P$ and $opt^\star$ is the ...
6 votes
0 answers
153 views

$\mathbf{AC}^0$ lower bounds for $\mathsf{Gap}\text{-}\mathsf{Max3SAT}$

Various gapped maximization problems are known not to be $\mathbf{NP}$-hard under $\mathbf{AC}^0$ reductions, e.g., $\mathsf{Gap}_{1,\epsilon}\text{-}\mathsf{Max3SAT}$ (see, e.g., Proposition 4 of ...
1 vote
0 answers
69 views

Decision tree vs. pebble game lower bounds

This question concerns two types of lower bounds. In a pebbling lower bound, we are concerned with the complexity of constructing the output from the input. For example, if the only way we could ...
10 votes
1 answer
658 views

Is the Kolmogorov complexity of the truth tables of the halting problem known asymptotically?

Let $HALT_n$ denote the string of length $2^n$ corresponding to the truth table of the halting problem for inputs of length $n$. If the sequence of Kolmogorov complexities $K(HALT_n)$ were $O(1)$, ...
0 votes
0 answers
78 views

Low-Treewidth Sorting Networks

It was previously asked if there exist Boolean circuits of treewidth $O(\log n)$ that compute the majority function $\text{MAJ}_n$ on $n$ inputs. While a construction using online algorithms and the ...
0 votes
1 answer
127 views

Complexity for universal Counter Machine with {0,1}-valued registers

Consider a universal $\{0,1\}$-$k$-counter machine where each of the $k$ registers has a value in $\{0,1\}$ (as opposed to any non-negative integer in the usual formulation), and there are states $q_1,...
2 votes
0 answers
172 views

Triangle detection hardness in regular graphs

Consider a tripartite graph over $n^{1-\epsilon}$ vertices each in sets $I, J, K$. Suppose we impose a constraint that every vertex has degree $n^\epsilon/c$ for some constant $\epsilon > 0$ and ...
20 votes
1 answer
1k views

How to prove that USTCONN requires logarithmic space?

USTCONN is the problem that requires deciding whether there is a path from the source vertex $s$ to the target vertex $t$ in a graph $G$, where these are all given as part of the input. Omer Reingold ...
5 votes
2 answers
414 views

Are there problems in $DTIME(n^k) - DTIME(n^{k-1})$ that are not hard for $DTIME(n^{k-1})$ under nearly linear time reductions?

Background It can be challenging to find computational problems that are solvable in $DTIME(n^k) - DTIME(n^{k-1})$ where $k \geq 2$. Although some natural problems are known to exist, many of them ...
2 votes
0 answers
81 views

Obtaining a lower bound of a matrix norm

I was wondering (on a setting where $\vec X_i \sim \mathcal{N}(\vec\mu, \mathbb{I})$ are $n$ random $d$-dimensional multivariate normal vectors with unknown mean $\vec\mu$) how I could obtain a lower ...
3 votes
1 answer
352 views

ETH based lower bound for $k$-COLORING of bounded degree graph

It is known that there is no $2^{o(n)}$-time algorithm for 3-COLORABILITY of graphs of maximum degree four, unless ETH fails [1]. Is a there a similar result for $k$-COLORABILITY assuming only ETH (...
2 votes
0 answers
63 views

What is known about the stabilizer rank of this simple state?

Consider the uniform superposition of all length-$n$ bit-strings of Hammming weight $w$, $$ |\phi_w\rangle =\sum_{x\in \{0,1\}^n,|x|=w} |x\rangle$$ What is known or conjectured about the stabilizer ...
3 votes
1 answer
135 views

What is the best simulation of majority utilizing $\bmod\{2,3,\dots,p\}$ gates?

It is known $AC^0[2]$ cannot get majority function. Is there a literature on simulation of $MAJ$ function utilizing $AC^0[2,3,\dots,p]$ gates for a finite fixed set of primes $2$ to $p=O(1)$? What is ...
18 votes
2 answers
1k views

Lower bounds on #SAT?

The problem #SAT is the canonical #P-complete problem. It's a function problem rather than a decision problem. It asks, given a boolean formula $F$ in propositional logic, how many satisfying ...
0 votes
1 answer
192 views

Comparing SAT to MCSP reduction class separations and faster SAT class separations?

Assume $SAT$ is in $QuasiP$. We immediately infer $NQuasiP=QuasiP$ and $EXP=NEXP$. From https://people.csail.mit.edu/rrw/easy-witness-nqp.pdf we infer $NQuasiP$ is not in $P/poly$ which implies $...

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