Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 174 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange

Questions tagged [np-hardness]

Questions related to NP-hardness and NP-completeness.

0
votes
1answer
85 views

Subset Sum Problem and hard looking instances that are not really hard

I have been working in a subset sum solver (some new approach) and while working on the time complexity analysis I found what I describe below. Maybe this could explain why some "hard looking" ...
1
vote
0answers
41 views

how to achieve a topological sort of an given sequence with minimum swaps

For example, given the constraints {$a<b,c<d$} and a sequence $[b,a,c,d]$. we just need swap $a$ with $b$ to get an topological sort, I want to ask how to find the sort solutions with minimum ...
2
votes
1answer
127 views

A least sized partition of a set under a distance metric

What is the worst case complexity of an algorithm to find a least partition of a set under a distance metric, described as follows: Input: A set $S=\{s_1,\ldots,s_n\}$, where the elements $s_i$ are ...
9
votes
1answer
125 views

Best known asymptotic PCP sizes / 3-SAT

What are the best known asymptotic upper bounds on sizes of probabilistically checkable proofs? Ideally, I am looking for a contemporary survey on this broad question, but if there is none, I am ...
1
vote
1answer
74 views

A dominate vector subset sum problem

Let $k$ be some constants (e.g. one can take $k=2$ for simplexity), for any $u,v\in \mathbb{R}$, we say $u$ dominate $v$ if $\forall 1\le i\le k,~ u[i]\ge v[i]$, write it as $u\succ v$. Consider the ...
8
votes
0answers
110 views

Complexity of fractional SAT

Let $(a, k)$-SAT be $k$-SAT with the promise that if there is there is a satisfying assignment, then there is such an assignment that satisfies at least $a$ literals of every clause. Can 3-SAT with $...
0
votes
0answers
33 views

How should a reduction to the Cardinality Constrained Quadratic Knapsack Problem work?

in Polyhedral Study of the Cardinality Constrained Knapsack Problem the authors prove that the Cardinality Constrained Knapsack Problem is NP-Hard by reducing PARTITION to it. Besides, it's easy to ...
2
votes
0answers
82 views

Counting the maximum number of paths of length $n$ that differ in at least $k$ edges

What is known about the complexity of solving (or approximately solving) the following problem? INPUT: Graph $G=(V,E)$ and constants $L$ and $K$. OUTPUT: The maximum size of any set $S$ of simple ...
0
votes
0answers
61 views

Proving that a problem is coNP-complete [duplicate]

Let $\le^{p}_{T}$ be the Turing or the Cook reduction and $\le_{m}^{p}$ the Karp-Levin reduction. I know that to prove a problem $P_1$ is coNP-complete I just need to show that $P_1 \in coNP$ and ...
3
votes
0answers
43 views

Hardness of ancilla free quantum circuit extraction from circuit with ancillas

Is there any known result regarding the hardness of the following problem: Given a quantum circuit with ancillae implementing a unitary, find a quantum circuit that does not use any ancillae that ...
1
vote
0answers
55 views

Reasoning about NP hardness of optimization problems with closed form functions as input

(This may not be a research level question per se. I can delete this question if the community thinks this way too) I am trying to understand how to reason about hardness of optimization problems ...
3
votes
2answers
148 views

Finding a set which dominates the Minimum Dominating Set

Given an unweighted, undirected graph, a dominating set $S$ is a set of nodes such that every node is in $S$ or adjacent to a node in $S$. The dominating set problem is NP-hard, but I am considering ...
2
votes
1answer
102 views

Is partitioning a multiset into two multisets with equal averages NP-complete?

The subset sum problem of partitioning a multiset of integers into two multisets with equal sums is NP-complete. Is the seemingly related problem of partitioning a multiset of integers into two ...
4
votes
0answers
109 views

A variant of hitting set: finding a matching to hit all edge sets

In general, the hitting set problem is given a family $\cal S$ of sub-sets, $\{S_1, \cdots, S_h\}$, and a universal set $U = \bigcup_{i\in [1,h]} S_i$. It asks for a minimum set $H \subseteq U$ ...
-1
votes
1answer
62 views

Restricted Universe Exact Cover

Apologies for a simple question - I am a beginning graduate student in TCS. Consider the following $\mathrm{ExactCover}$ problem: Given a collection $\mathcal{S}$ of subsets of a universe set $U$ and ...
3
votes
0answers
170 views

What is consequence of $PH\subseteq NSPACE((\log n)^2)$?

What is consequences of $PH\subseteq NSPACE((\log n)^2)$? We don't even know PH is equals to L or not. I am wondering what will be happened when $PH\subseteq NSPACE((\log n)^2)$?
-5
votes
1answer
79 views

NP hard? Maximize the average for a subset of numbers

Given a set of real numbers, choose a subset to maximize the average subject to the average not exceeding a given threshold. Is it NP hard? I think so, but I cannot come out with a proof. Thanks a ...
16
votes
1answer
991 views

Password hashing using NP complete problems

Commonly used password hashing algorithms work like this today: Salt the password and feed it into a KDF. For example, using PBKDF2-HMAC-SHA1, the password hashing process is ...
22
votes
2answers
2k views

Are there any hard instances of 3-SAT when the clauses can only use literals that are “nearby” each other?

Let the variables be $x_1 , x_2 , x_3 ... x_n$. The distance between two variables is defined as $d(x_a , x_b) = |a-b|$. The distance between two literals is the distance between the corresponding ...
0
votes
0answers
78 views

distNP-complete problem

Here on page 367 there is an example of $\text{dist}\mathbb{NP}$-complete problem: let $U$ contain all tuples $\langle M,x,1^t\rangle$ where there exists a string $y\in \{0,1\}^l$such that the ...
-1
votes
1answer
55 views

How to make any graph 2-degenerate?

I have to show a PPT(polynomial time reduction) from 'Colorful graph Motif' to '2-Degenerate Steiner Tree'. As input graph should be 2-degenerate, but here is normal graph G (that is, basically an ...
1
vote
0answers
63 views

Directed NP Hard Problem on DAG

There are problems that are NP-Hard on undirected graphs(maximum weight independent set and graph coloring) but are polynomial time solvable on trees. Tree decomposition is a good tool to talk about ...
2
votes
1answer
85 views

What is the best approximation and exact algorithm for vertex cover on cubic graphs?

"Best" = best performing in terms of run-time for exact algorithm and approximation ratio for an approximation algorithm.
-1
votes
1answer
51 views

NP-Complete graph problems where a special vertex is given as input?

I am currently working on a graph theory problem where the instance includes a graph and a special vertex in the graph. I am trying to prove the NP-completeness of the problem as well as explore ...
6
votes
1answer
98 views

NP completeness of classes of spanning trees

I am teaching a complexity course, and I want to give some examples of similar looking problems such that one is in P, and the other is NP complete. This made me think of the following problem: does ...
21
votes
4answers
782 views

Problems that are counter-intuitively solvable in practice?

Recently, I went through the painful fun experience of informally explaining the concept of computational complexity to a young talented self-taught programmer, who never took a formal course in ...
4
votes
1answer
174 views

How hard is it to determine the chromatic number of a unit distance graph?

For example, is it NP-complete to decide whether a unit distance graph is 3-colorable?
1
vote
1answer
76 views

Minimum number of columns making each row different

I'm curious whether this problem is NP-hard: suppose you are given an arbitrary $m\times n$ 0-1 matrix (each element is either 0 or 1, for the simplicity of the problem), and any pair of rows (i.e. a ...
1
vote
0answers
92 views

Best way to represent NP-Hardness result for decision problem with two decision parameters

What is the best way to represent a NP-Hardness result for a decision problem with two decision parameters? Suppose we have a problem $P$ which asks to minimize two parameters $x$ and $y$ and we show ...
0
votes
1answer
73 views

Constrained Topological Sorting with bounded number of chains

In general, constrained topological sorting is NP-hard. Now we add another constraint to it, such that take any k+1 nodes and there will be at least one pair ...
0
votes
0answers
49 views

Metric 1-Center in l-infinity norm (when dimension is part of the input)

Consider the following problem, Input: A number $d>0$, $X \subseteq \mathbb{R}^d$. Output: A center $c\in \mathbb{R}^d$ s.t $\max_{x \in X} \lVert x - c\rVert_p $ is minimized. This is the 1-...
3
votes
0answers
74 views

PTIME or NP-Hardness of stochastic objective function

I will begin by linking a previous post where I asked a general question for a stochastic setting which I describe below. It turns out that my "proof" for a restricted case had a mistake and there is ...
4
votes
0answers
81 views

Showing hardness of maximizing stochastic objective function over graph

Consider a graph $G = (V, E)$ with $n$ vertices and $m$ edges. Each vertex $v_i$ can take positive value $a_i$ with probability $p_i$ and value $0$ with probability $1-p_i$. The challenge is to ...
1
vote
0answers
75 views

Is NP-complete the existence of paths of a given length in a directed graph? [closed]

Given a directed graph G= (V,E), a pair of vertices s and t, a natural number K encoded in binary, whether the problem to decide there exists a path (not necessarily simple) from s to t of length K is ...
4
votes
0answers
71 views

min weight k-closure on DAG

The problem Given a (connected) DAG $G(V,E)$ where each node is assigned an (non-negative) integer weight an integer k where $0\leq k\leq|V|$ Find a induced subgraph $H$ of $G$ consisting of $k$ ...
4
votes
1answer
233 views

Sparsification Lemma for k-SAT and Exponential Time Hypothesis

According to R. Impagliazzo, R. Paturi and F. Zane, 2001 an instance of $k$-SAT is called sparse if $m = O(n)$ where $m$ denotes the number of clauses and $n$ the number of variables. The ...
0
votes
1answer
42 views

About using smoothness of the Hessian for getting to approximate criticality of a non-convex objective

Is there any algorithm which shows that under the assumption of Lipschitz smoothness of the Hessian of a non-convex function one can get to its critical point faster?
6
votes
0answers
72 views

Complexity of bounded degree full contraction

This paper defines the problem $\mathrm{B{\scriptsize OUNDED} \ D{\scriptsize EGREE}\ C{\scriptsize ONTRACTION}}$ as follows: Instance: A graph $G$ and two integers $d$ and $k$. Question: Is there a ...
22
votes
2answers
465 views

Testing whether letters can be scheduled to achieve a word in a regular language

I fix a regular language $L$ on an alphabet $\Sigma$, and I consider the following problem that I call letter scheduling for $L$. Informally, the input gives me $n$ letters and an interval for each ...
1
vote
2answers
187 views

If only pathological cases of NP-hard problems are difficult to solve, then why isn't NP-hard defined to only include those pathological cases?

NP-hard problems are not used in cryptography, because they are believed to be computationally-intractable in the worst case but are not computationally-intractable in the average case. Is there a ...
10
votes
2answers
210 views

Common insights into hypothetical complexity of graph problems

I came across two examples of hypothetical hardness of some graph problems. Hypothetical hardness means that refuting some conjecture would imply the NP-completeness of the respective graph problem. ...
16
votes
1answer
394 views

What is the complexity of this graph problem?

Given a simple undirected graph $G$, find a subset $A\neq \emptyset$ of vertices, such that for any vertex $x\in A$ at least half of the neighbors of $x$ are also in $A$, and the size of $A$ is ...
1
vote
0answers
93 views

Generalized path cover problem in DAG

Let $G=(V,E)$ be a directed acyclic graph. Two vertices is transitive if there is a directed path between them. A Path Cover for a Set of Transitive Pairs (PCSTP) is a set of directed paths such that ...
0
votes
0answers
95 views

NP-hardness of euclidean Facility Location/k-median variant

The Facility Location Problem (FLP) is defined as follows: Input: Sets C of clients and $F$ of potential facilities, opening costs $f_i$ for all $i \in F$, and connection costs c_{ij} for all $i \in ...
1
vote
0answers
135 views

Are there any NP-complete for continuous mathematics? [closed]

Looking at this wiki page, it seems most NP-complete problems are based on discrete structures, such as graphs. What are some problems that involve real or complex analysis instead of discrete ...
5
votes
2answers
172 views

Minimising the root-set of a spanning hyperforest of a hypergraph

I am interested in the complexity of a problem involving spanning hyperforests (a union of hypertrees, which covers all of the vertices) of a $k$-hypergraph. I describe the relevant definitions for ...
2
votes
0answers
159 views

Is Non-linear Constrained Optimal Exact Cover NP-Hard?

Playing around I ran into a problem which looks like a Exact Set Covering / Partition Problem, but I am unable to find a reduction to categorize the complexity of the problem, despite it looks NP-Hard....
2
votes
0answers
89 views

Random self reducibility and NP

I was reading the Wikipedia page https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Random_self-reducibility and it states: "If an NP-complete problem is non-adaptively random self-reducible the polynomial hierarchy ...
14
votes
1answer
693 views

Complexity of the problem of words with fewest distinct letters accepted by a finite automaton

Given a finite (deterministic or nondeterministic, I don't think this has much importance) automaton A and a threshold n, does A accept a word containing at most n distinct letters? (By k different ...
3
votes
2answers
161 views

Reduction of graph chromatic number to hypergraph 2-colorability

I'm following this paper titled "Coverings and colorings of hypergraphs" by Lovasz 1973, which is referenced in Garey and Johnson's Computers and Intractability, for the Set Splitting Problem. In this ...