Questions tagged [np-hardness]

Questions related to NP-hardness and NP-completeness.

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5 votes
3 answers
15k views

what is the real difference between traveling salesman problem (TSP) and vehicle routing problem (VRP)?

Both problems are well-known NP-hard problems with great similarities. In fact, I do not see the real difference between these two problems. It seems relatively easy to model TSP in the form of VRP ...
13 votes
0 answers
628 views

Recent progress on the next-to-shortest-path problem for directed graphs?

In the paper "Computing strictly-second shortest paths" (1997), Lalgudi and Papaefthymiou consider the following problem: Let $G$ be a directed graph with edge-weighting $w$. Let $u,v$ be ...
0 votes
1 answer
79 views

Polynomial time algorihtms for two variants of the decision version of longest walk problem

I want to know if the following variants of the longest path problem over directed graphs have polynomial time algorithm. As I understand it, the longest path problem doesn't allow repetition of edges....
0 votes
2 answers
84 views

strong NP-completeness of multi-dimensional Equal-Subset-Sum

I want to show that the multi-dimensional Equal-Subset-Sum is NP-complete in the strong sense: Given a set of $d$-dimensional vectors of non-negative integers, does there exist two distinct nonempty ...
1 vote
1 answer
60 views

Shorter than target vector path algorithm

Consider a generalisation of the shortest path problem on directed graphs with weights in $\mathbb{Q}^k$. Formally, the input is a graph, a source state $s$, a target state $t$, and an objective ...
0 votes
0 answers
44 views

Unbounded Knapsack: Does Increasing capacity increase optimal value?

Our decision problem is as follows: given weights $\mathbf{w}$, values $\mathbf{v}$, and capacities $C_1$ and $C_2$, where $C_1 < C_2$, does the optimal value of unbounded knapsack with the above ...
4 votes
3 answers
287 views

A Travelling Salesman variant where the next distance depends on distance travelled so far

The travelling salesman problem can be seen as a problem of selecting a permutation on $\{1,\ldots,n\}$ of minimun length, where the length of a permutation $\sigma$ is determined by pairwise ...
12 votes
2 answers
689 views

Problems that are NP-Complete when restricted to graphs of treewidth 2 but polynomial on trees

Do we know any problem that satisfies the following criteria? It is polynomial-time solvable on trees. It is NP-complete when restricted to graphs of treewidth 2. The problem can be encoded only ...
0 votes
2 answers
212 views

Shortest path with permutations and fixed dimension

I'm thinking of extensions of the shortest path problem which are solvable in polynomial time. One way to do this is to consider the shortest path problem on a weighted directed graph with weights on $...
5 votes
1 answer
132 views

Shortest path with affine updates and fixed dimension

One may look at the shortest path problem on a weighted directed graph with weights on $\mathbb{Q}$ as the problem of minimizing a rational value $x$ which is updated at each edge of the graph with ...
16 votes
3 answers
4k views

Subset sum vs. Subset product (strong vs. weak NP hardness)

I was hoping that some one might be able to explain to me why exactly the subset product problem is strongly NP-hard while the subset sum problem is weakly NP-hard. Subset Sum: Given $X = \{x_1,...,...
25 votes
2 answers
2k views

Is finding Logspace reductions harder than P reductions?

Motivated by Shor's answer related to different notions of NP-completeness, I am looking for a problem that is NP-complete under P reductions but not known to be NP-complete under Logspace reductions (...
1 vote
0 answers
143 views

Reordering a DAG with the minimum changes

Consider a DAG $(V,A)$ with an initial permutation $(v_1,v_2,…,v_n)$. We want to arrange the $n$ vertices in topological order while keeping as many vertices as possible. The problem is: Is it NP-...
7 votes
1 answer
321 views

Is sorting NP-complete?

SORTING problem. Input: A poset which corresponds to a partially sorted list of different numbers. Output: Number of pairwise comparisons needed (in the worst case) to get a completely sorted array. ...
4 votes
1 answer
204 views

Is Optimal Swap Sorting NP-Hard?

Given an array of integers with duplicates, find the minimum number of swaps to sort the array. According to this question, the problem is NP-Complete but the reference given proves NP-Completeness ...
2 votes
0 answers
79 views

On The Complexity of Block-Interchange Distance for Binary Strings

The block-interchange distance problem is defined as finding the minimal number of subsequences swaps to apply to an input string to turn it into a desired string. It is a well studied tractable ...
0 votes
0 answers
27 views

Compute a feasible schedule for scheduling on identical parallel machines?

I am considering the offline version of identical parallel machine scheduling with arrival time and deadlines while allowing preemption and no assumption regarding the agreeability of the arrival and ...
2 votes
0 answers
88 views

Complexity of finding a room-partitioning

In a paper by Jack Edmonds and Laura Sanità (link: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1571065310001605) the following intriguing result is given: Given a triangulation $T$ of $3n$ ...
2 votes
1 answer
75 views

Set Cover with Multiple covers

I am interested in whether a set cover instance that covers all elements $q$ times may have the property that every sufficiently small subset of this set cover will not cover the elements even once. ...
11 votes
9 answers
2k views

NP-complete decision problems on deterministic automata

Do you know any NP-complete decision problems on deterministic automata? Most NP-complete problems that come to my mind are either (see, or here) graph theoretical, or involve some string rewriting or ...
3 votes
0 answers
99 views

maximum independent set in graphs with small number of edges

For the classic maximum independent set problem, a hardness of approximation result of $n^{1-\varepsilon}$ is known by [Hastad, 1996] assuming $\textsf{NP} \not \subseteq \textsf{ZPP}$, where $n$ is ...
10 votes
0 answers
147 views

Is this problem on unambiguous DNFs hard?

Call a DNF formula $\varphi = \bigvee_{i=1}^n C_i$ unambiguous if for every $i\neq j$, $C_i \land C_j$ is unsatisfiable. In other words, the disjunct $C_i$ contains some literal $l$ and $C_j$ contains ...
3 votes
0 answers
89 views

What's the complexity of the "decision version" of counting the paths in a graph?

I learned that "counting the simple paths in a graph(whether directed or not)" is #P-Complete. I'm wondering what the complexity is for its decision version. Here are two types I'm ...
0 votes
0 answers
92 views

Complexity of Identifying SAT Problems with a Unique Solution from Satisfiable Instances

I am curious about the computational complexity involved in identifying SAT problems that have only one solution from a set of satisfiable SAT instances. input and output: input: A satisfiable cnf ...
1 vote
0 answers
69 views

Hardness for find the clause for statisfiable 3-SAT problems

The 3-SAT problems are known to be NP-complete so the decision problems are believed to be non efficiently solvable unless P=NP. Yet, there are cases where the satisfiability can be answered such as ...
6 votes
3 answers
446 views

Finding a minimal context free grammar that recognizes a finite set of strings of bounded length

Problem: Given a finite set of strings $\{x_1, x_2, ..., x_n\}$ of length $\ell$ or less from some finite alphabet $\Sigma=\{a_1, a_2, ..., a_k\}$, find the minimal context free grammar that ...
1 vote
1 answer
243 views

The Complexity of Multi-Objective Optimization

Given a vector set $V=\{v_i\}_{i=1}^n$ with $n$ vectors where $v_i\in \mathbb{R}^d$ is a vector and a transfer matrix $\mathbf{W}\in \mathbb{R}^{d_1\times d}$, the target is to select two subsets $V_1=...
3 votes
1 answer
186 views

What’s the complexity of this decision problem with bit shifting?

I’ve been wondering about the computational complexity of a problem that involves bit shifting. Let me define some notation before I present the problem. If $\langle{b}\rangle$ is a bitstring ...
2 votes
0 answers
26 views

Hardness of 3-Partition with Small Target Value

In the 3-partition problem, we are given a set of positive integers $a_1,\ldots,a_n$ and a target value $T$; the goal is to decide if there is a partition of the numbers to triplets such that the sum ...
2 votes
1 answer
175 views

Is counting the union of power sets NP-complete?

Say we have $n$ sets $A_1,\dots,A_n$ with elements from a universal set $U$. We want to compute the cardinality of $\cup_{i=1}^n 2^{A_i}$ or at least decide on non-trivial bounds. Is this problem NP-...
0 votes
0 answers
70 views

The hardness of active learning with fixed budget

I have been looking for theoretical papers studying this question of the hardness of PAC active learning algorithms. I found a few papers studying the problem from a fixed perspective (particular ...
2 votes
0 answers
48 views

Is this variant of Facilities location problem a NP-hard problem?

Given a set of locations $P=\{p_1,p_2,\dots\}$ and a set of facilities $F=\{f_1,f_2,\dots\},|F|\ge k$ on a plane. We want to partition the facilities into $k$ disjoint subsets (each subset has at ...
6 votes
0 answers
95 views

Certifying the promise in hard promise problems

Do we happen to know of any promise problems where the problem is both conditionally hard (say, NP-hard) while simultaneously being able to certify that the instance satisfies the given promise? For ...
0 votes
0 answers
132 views

Could we build PSPACE-based cryptography - more secure post-quantum?

It seems not safe to exclude possibility of e.g. some next generation quantum computers being able to attack NP problems (e.g. 2WQC) - so maybe it is worth to start thinking of shifting the ...
1 vote
0 answers
90 views

Generalization of the Hamiltonian path problem on Grid Graphs

Fix a cost to each of these actions: move up, move down, move left, move right. I.e. fix some function $f: \{\text{move up, move down, move left, move right}\} \to \mathbb N$. Define the following ...
0 votes
1 answer
67 views

Is this edge-partitioning NP-Hard?

Let $G = (V,E)$ be an undirected graph with $m = |E|$ edges (assume that $m = 3t$ for some $t \in \mathbb{N}$). Problem: Partition $E$ to $q = \frac{m}{3}$ sets $S_1,S_2,\ldots, S_q \subseteq E$ sets ...
3 votes
0 answers
186 views

Is $\mathsf{NP}\subseteq\mathsf{NSPACE}(n)$?

It is well-known that $\mathsf{P}\neq\mathsf{SPACE}(n)$, either for $\mathsf{SPACE}=\mathsf{DSPACE}$ or $\mathsf{NSPACE}$, and it is conjectured that both $\mathsf{P}\not\subseteq\mathsf{DSPACE}(n)$ ...
13 votes
1 answer
264 views

Complexity of 1-or-3-in-3-SAT (odd-3-SAT)

Consider a 3-CNF formula $\Phi$, i.e., a conjunction of clauses of 3 literals. I call odd-SAT (or 1-or-3-in-3-SAT) the problem of checking whether there is an assignment of the variables such that ...
0 votes
0 answers
34 views

Hardness of finding minimal subsets that will change the maximum of a univariate polynomial

Given a univariate polynomial of the form $p(x) = \prod_{0 \leq i \leq N}{(x*a_i + b_i)}$ when all of the $a_i$ and $b_i$ are numbers in the range [-1,1] and $i$ goes from $0$ to $N$ (we are given all ...
1 vote
0 answers
78 views

Hardness of maximization of a univariate polynomial (as a function of its degree)

Given a univariate polynomial of the form $p(x) = \prod_{i}{(x*a_i + b_i)}$ when all of the $a_i$ and $b_i$ are numbers in the range [-1,1] and $i$ goes from $0$ to $N$. What is the complexity of ...
13 votes
1 answer
752 views

What is the complexity of (possibly succinct) Nurikabe?

Nurikabe is a constraint-based grid-filling puzzle, loosely similar to Minesweeper/Nonograms; numbers are placed on a grid which is to be filled with on/off values for each cell, with each number ...
0 votes
0 answers
67 views

Enumerating all set covers with sets of size at most two

I am working on enumerating all the set covers (need not be minimal). A branching algorithm runs in $O^*(1.2353^{|U|+|S|})$ time that branches on all the sets of size at least three. As the branching ...
0 votes
0 answers
76 views

Prove that Vertex Cover is NP-Complete by reducing MaxCut to Vertex Cover

This is not the most straight forward reduction available on the internet since most people start from the fact that vertex cover is NP-complete and reduce a given vertex cover instance to MaxCut ...
1 vote
0 answers
96 views

Complexity of n-rooks completion

I am motivated by the post, Complexity of n-queens-completion. I am interested in completion problem of non-attacking rooks on a chessboard. Input: Given a chessboard of size $n*n$ with $n-k$ rooks ...
5 votes
0 answers
152 views

Complexity of numerical 3-dimensional matching where the three multisets are identical

Consider the following problem: Input: one multiset $S = \{s_1, \ldots, s_n\}$ of positive integers written in unary Output: can we build $n$ triples that sum to the same value, using each element of ...
2 votes
1 answer
243 views

Which hypergraphs can be simplified by alternatively removing a hyperedge and an isolated vertex?

Let $H = (V, E)$ be a hypergraph, with $V$ the set of vertices and $E \subseteq 2^V$ the set of hyperedges. An elimination sequence on $H$ consists of alternatively removing hyperedges. Specifically, ...
3 votes
1 answer
192 views

Which 1-player games are EXPTIME-complete? Also, are there any known games that are EXPSPACE-complete?

I noticed a lot of 1-player games have been shown to be NP-Hard, like Pac-Man, The World's Hardest Game, Tetris, etc. For PSPACE-Complete, I noticed that Wikipedia listed these 1-player games: It is ...
2 votes
1 answer
131 views

clique problem in graphs with bounded degree

Is the problem of finding a clique of size $d$ in a graph of maximum degree $d$ NP-complete ($d$ part of the input)?
0 votes
1 answer
195 views

Complexity of solving a higher-order degree polynomial equation? P-problem or NP-problem or neither?

I am a mathematician and I am very new to theoretical computer science. The definition of P/NP problem I found in wiki is that: P is the set of decision problems solvable in polynomial time by a ...
9 votes
1 answer
301 views

Complexity of permanent verification

Consider the problem of permanent verification: $\bullet \ $ Given a $n\times n$ matrix $A$ with entries in $\{0,1\}$, and given $k\ge 0$, does $Per(A)=k$? Question: Is it known to be NP-hard? Should ...

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