# Questions tagged [np-hardness]

Questions related to NP-hardness and NP-completeness.

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### Is Almost-2-SAT NP-hard?

Is a CNF SAT problem NP hard when the total number (but not the width) of the 3-or-more-term clauses is bounded above by a constant? What about specifically when there's only one such clause?
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### Hardness of a subcase of Set Cover

How hard is the Set Cover problem if the number of elements is bounded by some function (e.g, $\log n$) where $n$ is the size of the problem instance. Formally, Let $\mathcal{U}=\{e_1, \cdots, e_m\}$...
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### Relationship between two graph optimization problems

Let $Q$ be a polynomial time computable graph property of simple, undirected graphs. Consider the following two optimization problems on any input graph: P1. Find a largest induced subgraph of the ...
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### Hamilton Decomposition Decision Problem

Let $G=(V,E)$ be an undirected graph. A decomposition of $V$ into disjoint subsets $V_i$ is called a Hamilton decomposition of $G$ if the subgraph induced by each set $V_i$ is either a Hamilton graph ...
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### Reconstructing labeled poset from linear extensions

Let $(P, <, \mu)$ be a labeled poset, that is, a partial order $(P, <)$ with a labeling function $\mu$ that maps the elements of $P$ to labels in an alphabet $\Sigma$. A label list (or word) is ...
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### Set optimization problem - is it np-complete?

Set $S=\{e_1,\cdots,e_n\}$ is given. For each element $e_i$, we have weight $w_i>0$ and cost $c_i>0$. The goal is findIng the subset $M$ of size $k$ that maximize the following objective ...
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### Is there any known NP-Complete (or NP-Intermediate) problem in sublinear nondeterministic space?

There are some NP-Complete problems ($\mathsf{SAT}$, $\mathsf{SUBSETSUM}$, etc.) known to be in $\mathsf{DSPACE(n)}$. What about the sub-linear spaces? Is there any known NP-Complete (or NP-...
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### Does every Turing-recognizable undecidable language have a NP-complete subset?

Does every Turing-recognizable undecidable language have a NP-complete subset? The question could be seen as a stronger version of the fact that every infinite Turing-recognizable language has an ...
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### What are good approximation algorithms for the subset sum problem so far?

By "good", I mean either the algorithm provides a relatively tight bound or it has a relatively fast running time. Any reference is welcome.
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### Consequences of a distillation algorithm for PSPACE

The following notion of a distillation algorithm comes from "On Problems Without Polynomial Kernels". Let a language $L$ be given. A distillation algorithm for $L$ takes a given list of input ...
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### What is known about the hardness of the chromatic index for restricted graph classes?

There is a nice paper from 1991 that contains three diagrams about different graphclass-families showing what is known about the hardness of determining the chromatic index for them. Are there any ...
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### Does 1-in-3 SAT remain NP-hard even if every variable occurs both positively and negatively?

The standard problem 1-in-3 SAT (or XSAT or X3SAT) is: Instance: a CNF formula with every clause containing exactly 3 literals Question: is there a satisfying assignment setting precisely 1 literal ...
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### Complexity of finding the maximal number of pair-wise disjoint sets

Assume that I have $P$ sets with elements taken from $r$ possible ones. Each set is of size $n$ ($n<r$), where the sets can overlap. I want to determine whether the following two problems are NP-...
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### Edge-partitioning into rainbow triangles

I'm wondering if the following problem is NP-hard. Input: $G = (V,E)$ a simple graph, and a coloring $f : E \to \{1,2,3\}$ of the edges ($f$ does not verify any specific property). Question:...
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### Maximum weight “fair” matching

I'm interested in a variant of the maximum weight matching in a graph, which I call "Maximum Fair Matching". Assume that the graph is full (i.e. $E=V\times V$), has even number of vertices, and that ...
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### Is Deolalikar's 2010 proof that $P \ne NP$ correct?

There was recently a claimed proof that $P \ne NP$. Not long after its publication there were raised some issues with this proof. So ... is the proof correct or not ? (Please only answer this if you ...
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### P vs NP: Instructive example of when Brute Force search can be avoided

To be able to explain the P vs NP problem to non-mathematicians I would like to have a pedagogical example of when Brute Force-search can be avoided. The problem should ideally be immediately ...
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### Is integer factorization an NP-complete problem? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: What are the consequences of factoring being NP-complete? What notable reference works have covered this?
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### Multidimensional knapsack STRONGLY NP-complete

Who can point me to a reference where it is actually shown that multidimensional knapsack is strongly NP-complete? I have found loads of papers where they claim it is, without citation; I have found ...
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### Complexity of marriage matching problem?

Suppose you have $n$ males and $n$ females. Each person has $m$ attributes. Each person indicates a set of attributes that a possible candidate should have. A matching is a set of pairs. Each pair ...
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### Complexity of the $(3,2)_s$ SAT problem?

Let define the $(3,2)_s$ SAT problem : Given $F_3$, a satisfiable 3-CNF formula, and $F_2$, a 2-CNF formula ($F_3$ and $F_2$ are defined on the same variables). Is $F_3 \wedge F_2$ satisfiable? What ...
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### What is complexity of this max-edge subgraph problem?

While discussing the question I had asked here, @NealYoung and I encounter another problem, which is to judge complexity of the problem below: Given a connected undirected graph, finding a maximum-...
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### Does $NP$-hardness of $c$-approximation (for some $c>1$) imply $APX$-hardness?

Assume that for a given minimization problem with only integer solutions, it is $NP$-hard to decide if the optimal solution is 5 or 6. I.e., a polynomial-time algorithm with an approximation ratio ...
Given a graph $G$, what is the minimum number of edges of $G$ that we need to delete to make the graph triangle free? To my untrained eye, this appears to be a difficult problem. Is this problem ...
In the standard partition problem, we are given some numbers whose sum is $2s$ and have to decide whether they can be partitioned into two subset whose sum is $s$. It is known to be NP-hard. However,...