# Questions tagged [proof-complexity]

propositional proof systems and corresponding bounded arithmetic theories

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### Axioms necessary for theoretical computer science

This question is inspired by a similar question about applied mathematics on mathoverflow, and that nagging thought that important questions of TCS such as P vs. NP might be independent of ZFC (or ...
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### If P=NP, could we obtain proofs of Goldbach's Conjecture etc.?

This is a naive question, out of my expertise; apologies in advance. Goldbach's Conjecture and many other unsolved questions in mathematics can be written as short formulas in predicate calculus. For ...
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### Well known classes of boolean formulas that require exponentially long resolution proofs

You might often find cutting plane methods, variable propagation, branch and bound, clause learning, intelligent backtracking or even handwoven human heuristics in SAT solvers. Yet for decades the ...
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### Natural NP-complete problems with “large” witnesses

The question on cstheory "What is NP restricted to linear size witnesses?" asks about the class NP restricted to linear size $O(n)$ witnesses, but Are there natural NP-complete problems in which (...
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### Sum-of-squares proof system

Recently I have seen several articles on arxiv that refer to a proof system called sum-of-squares. Can someone explain what is a sum-of-squares proof and why such proofs are important/interesting? ...
919 views

### What algorithms are known for computing Craig interpolants?

Is there any survey of algorithms for computing interpolants? What about papers on only one algorithm? The case I'm most interested in is $A=\lnot p\land q$ and $C=q$, plus the constraint that the ...
557 views

### Constructively efficient algorithms without efficient correctness and efficiency proof

I am looking for natural examples of efficient algorithms (i.e. in polynomial time) s.t. their correctness and efficiency can be proven constructively (e.g. in $PRA$ or $HA$), but no proof using only ...
481 views

### Uses of XORification

XORification is the technique to make a Boolean function or formula harder by replacing every variable $x$ by the XOR of $k\geq 2$ distinct variables $x_1 \oplus \ldots \oplus x_k$. I am aware of ...
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### Theories which characterize classes of computational complexity

When reading the paper "An applicative theory for FPH" you can encounter the following passage: Considering theories which characterize classes of computational complexity, there are three ...
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### Is propositional resolution a complete proof system?

This question is about propositional logic and all occurrences of "resolution" should be read as "propositional resolution". This question is something extremely basic but it has been bothering me ...
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### Combinatorial characterization of hypergraph Tseitin satisfiability

The Tseitin formulas are as follows: Given a connected graph and a function $\alpha: V \rightarrow \{0,1\}$. Associate each edge $e$ with a variable $x_e$. The Tseitin formula $G(\alpha)$ is defined ...
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### Construct proof systems for common algorithmic task, like equivalence of regular expressions

A propositional proof system according to Cook and Reckhow for a language $L \subseteq \Sigma^{\ast}$ is a deterministic polynomial time function $f : \Sigma^{\ast} \to L$ that is onto. For $y \in L$ ...
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### Have the proofs in Buss's “On Goedel’s Theorems on Lengths of Proofs” been formalized (mechanically checked)?

The paper On Gödel's theorems on lengths of proofs I: Number of lines and speedup for arithmetics contains quite interesting results on proof length. But some of the details are still, to me, a bit ...
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### Efficient transformation of clausal proof into resolution proof

Clausal proof is used to certify unsat results of SAT solvers. However the main theoretical results are on resolution proof (for instance, the non existence of a polynomial resolution proof for the ...