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Questions tagged [randomized-algorithms]

An algorithm whose behaviour is determined by its input and a generator producing uniformly random numbers.

2
votes
1answer
109 views

How to use a 𝑝-coin so a TM can decide an undecidable language in polynomial time? [closed]

In "Computational complexity- A modern approach" book (page 117) for the lemma 7.12 (following) the author mentioned that if the ρ is efficiently computable ρ-coin cannot give probabilistic algorithm ...
2
votes
1answer
82 views

Robustness to non-uniform randomness vs. one-sidedness

Consider any problem where, fixing two (disjoint) subsets $\mathcal{Y},\mathcal{N}\subseteq \{0,1\}^n$ of the input space, the goal is to obtain a randomized algorithm $D$ which, given a uniformly ...
3
votes
1answer
131 views

Intuitive explanation behind Goemans-Williamson randomized rounding

A very simple randomized cut algorithm achieves $1/2$ of the optimal value: just choose each vertex to be in the cut with probability $1/2$, independently. Goemans-Williamson does something more ...
3
votes
0answers
84 views

Generating a random connected bipartite graph

A (n, m, k)-bipartite graph is a bipartite graphs with: independent sets of size $\{n, m\}$ a total of $k \geq n+m-1$ edges We want an algorithm to generate a (n, m, k)-bipartite selected uniformly ...
10
votes
5answers
529 views

List of quantum-inspired algorithms

Advances in quantum computing have led to the development of new classical algorithms. Notable recent examples are quantum-inspired algorithms for linear algebra: A quantum-inspired classical ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

Is there a stochastic/online version of the GLM-Tron algorithm?

The GLM-Tron algorithm appeared in Theorem $1$ in this paper, https://arxiv.org/pdf/1104.2018.pdf Is there a stochastic version of this? (...essentially something that will randomly sample a few ...
1
vote
0answers
35 views

PTAS for projective clustering : survey

$(k,j)$-projective clustering is the natural generalisation for k-clustering, in which one needs to find $k$ $j$-flats in $\mathbb{R}^d$ that minimizes the cost function as defined below: Given a $j$-...
1
vote
1answer
57 views

What forms of randomness are 'allowed' in FPRASs?

I cannot seem to find a source describing randomized approximation schemes ((F)PRAS) that tells me exactly what sort of randomness a program is allowed to use. A priori it seems to me that being able ...
1
vote
0answers
64 views

Complexity class of approximating perfect match count

We know we can approximate perfect matching count of bipartite and approximate volume of convex bodies in randomized polynomial time. Is there any evidence these approximations could be in Nick's ...
5
votes
0answers
144 views

Classification of randomized approximation algorithms

Is there a known classification of randomized approximation algorithms, in the same vein as the distinction between Monte Carlo and Las Vegas algorithms for decision problems? (Or equivalently ...
1
vote
0answers
67 views

Missing proof in Salil Vadhan's monograph on pseudorandomness, Random Walks and S-T Connectivity

In Salil Vadhan's monograph on pseudorandomness, chapter 2, half of the proof of Lemma 2.51 is missing http://people.seas.harvard.edu/~salil/pseudorandomness/power.pdf . I don't state the full lemma ...
1
vote
0answers
27 views

What is the maximal load of a “latency-bounded” Cuckoo Hash?

Cuckoo Hashing is a method for storing key-value stores (or just a set of keys) with a constant worst-case lookup time. They use two hash functions $h_1,h_2:\mathbb K\to [n]$, where $\mathbb K$ is ...
4
votes
2answers
148 views

Max cut problem between two connected subgraphs

Let $G$ be a connected graph. Consider the problem of finding a partition $G = A \cup B$ into connected subgraphs, so that the cut between $A$ and $B$ is maximized. Is there anything which is known ...
0
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0answers
86 views

distNP-complete problem

Here on page 367 there is an example of $\text{dist}\mathbb{NP}$-complete problem: let $U$ contain all tuples $\langle M,x,1^t\rangle$ where there exists a string $y\in \{0,1\}^l$such that the ...
-1
votes
1answer
91 views

Reducing disjoint or indexing or inner-product problem to s-t connectivity problem in directed graph

I am asked to prove that an O(1)-pass randomized streaming algorithm that solves s-t connectivity problem in a simple directed graph $G=(V,E)$ with $|V|=n$ vertices, with sucess possibility $>\frac{...
1
vote
0answers
55 views

Minimization of the maximal adjacent integer sums on a circle

Arrange $\{1,2,\cdots,n\}$ on a circle. What are the arrangements that minimize the maximal sum of all adjacent $k$ integers? For specific and low $n$'s it has been pointed out in math.stackexchange....
4
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0answers
138 views

research problem for undergraduate majoring in Computer Science and Mathematics

I am wondering if somebody can suggest a small research problem for undergraduate majoring in Computer Science and Mathematics. Would love to work with random matrices or wavelets.
0
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0answers
29 views

Expected size of the min-cut, under edge perturbations

Suppose we have a graph $G(V, E)$. Assume that the min-cut of this graph is given $C=(A/B)$ and denote the size of the cut with $|C|$. Create a random modification of the graph: Drop each ...
3
votes
1answer
131 views

Tighter Probability Bounds

Let $\mathcal{F}$ be a class of binary functions on a probability space $\Omega$. For $f \in \mathcal{F}$, let $P(f) =\mathbb{E}(f(Z))$ and $P_n(f) = \frac{1}{n} \sum_{i=1}^n f(Z_i)$ where $Z_i$'s are ...
1
vote
1answer
55 views

Does the following 2-rounds distributed algorithm approximates a maximal matching well?

Let $G$ be an undirected graph. I'm looking for a two-rounds distributed algorithm that matches as many vertex pairs as possible. Consider the following protocol for vertex $v$. Use a fair coin to ...
1
vote
0answers
53 views

Generating random labelled trees

I am looking for a simple rejection-free algorithm to uniformly sample random labelled trees (i.e. to generate each of them with the same probability). One possibility is to generate Prüfer sequences ...
4
votes
0answers
105 views

Learning hidden variable distribution

Consider a set of $k$ continuous variables. Each variable $x_k$ is associated with a hidden distribution from which its value is sampled independently of other variables. I am given a set of ...
3
votes
1answer
137 views

Literature reference for search-BPP

I'm trying to find the first article/paper that the complexity class search-BPP appeared in. Search-BPP, as defined as follows (in [1]): A binary relation $R$ is in search-BPP if there is a ...
-3
votes
1answer
106 views

Proving that a random permutation generator is not fair [closed]

If I'm generating random permutations using the following algorithm: ...
9
votes
1answer
308 views

Algorithm to compute distance between powers

Given coprime $a, b$, can you quickly compute $$ \min_{x, y > 0} |a^x - b^y| $$ Here $x, y$ are integers. Obviously taking $x = y = 0$ gives an uninteresting answer; in general how close can these ...
0
votes
2answers
468 views

Naive shuffle algorithm [closed]

Let us have a "shuffle algorithm": for i in range(len(vec)): swap(vec[i], vec[rand()%len(vec)]) Why the reshuffles we get using this algoritm for a number ...
10
votes
1answer
299 views

Find an approximate argmax using only approximate max queries

Consider the following problem. There are $n$ unknown values $v_1, \cdots, v_n \in \mathbb{R}$. The task is to find the index of the largest one using only queries of the following form. A query ...
1
vote
0answers
74 views

Time complexity of polynomial regression with random coefficients

Suppose that I have $$\lim_{k,l,m \rightarrow \infty}(f(x,l) ~~=~~ \sum_{n=1}^{m} g(a_{n,k})h(x,n)$$ where the $a_{n,k}$ are pseudo-random real numbers with $k$ digits generated in an arbitrary way, ...
6
votes
1answer
124 views

Directed graph with bounded in-deg can be partitioned in a balanced way

I want to prove that for all $n$, there exists a constant $c(n)$ such that if $G=(V,E)$ is a directed graph with in-degree bounded by $n$, it is possible to partition the set of vertices $V$ into two ...
7
votes
2answers
261 views

Random point in a d-dimensional ball

I would like to know if there any algorithm to pick a random grid point inside a d-dimensional ball with a given radius R. And if there any algorithm to pick a random arbitrary point inside a d-...
3
votes
1answer
99 views

Sublinear finite-precision sampling in a stream

I am looking to sample a single item from a stream such that each item in the stream has an equal probability of being selected. This is a restricted version of the reservoir sampling problem. On a ...
3
votes
1answer
159 views

Lower bound on probability of getting two close points in a sample of $n$ points

Let $D\subseteq \mathbb{R}^k$. Assume that $Pr_{u,v\leftarrow U_D}[|u-v| <B]>p$ for some $B,p$, where $|u-v|$ is the L1 distance of the vectors. $S\subseteq D$ is obtained by sampling $n$ ...
2
votes
1answer
235 views

Weighted balls and bins

Suppose I have $n$ balls and $n$ bins. Each ball $i$ has weight $w_i$. Let the total weight be $T = \sum_{i=1}^n w_i$. We throw the balls into the bins randomly, i.e., each ball lands into a random ...
9
votes
1answer
190 views

Uniform derandomisation of circuit complexity classes

Let $\mathcal{C}$ be a complexity class and $\textrm{BP-}\mathcal{C}$ be the randomized counterpart of $\mathcal{C}$ defined in the same way as $\textrm{BPP}$ is defined with respect to $\textrm{P}$. ...
12
votes
4answers
499 views

Can we fast generate perfectly uniformly mod 3 or solve NP problem?

To be honest, I don't know that much about how random number are generated (comments are welcome!) but let's assume the following theoretical model: We can get integers uniformly random from $[1,2^n]$ ...
10
votes
1answer
218 views

Randomness and small circuits complexity classes

Let $\mathcal{C}$ be a complexity class and $\textrm{BP-}\mathcal{C}$ be the randomized counterpart of $\mathcal{C}$ defined as $\textrm{BPP}$ with respect to $\textrm{P}$. More formally we provide ...
7
votes
2answers
652 views

Random sampling data structure with removal

I'd like a data structure with the following operations: create a new instances from an array of floating point weights. randomly sample, returning an item with probability proportionate to its ...
13
votes
1answer
299 views

Adleman's theorem over infinite semirings?

Adleman has shown in 1978 that $\mathrm{BPP}\subseteq \mathrm{P/poly}$: if a boolean function $f$ of $n$ variables can be computed by a probabilistic boolean circuit of size $M$, then $f$ can be also ...
10
votes
1answer
389 views

Can true randomness (provably) be replaced with Kolmogorov randomness for RP?

Have there been any attempts to show that Kolmogorov randomness would be sufficient for RP? Would the probability used in the statement "If the correct answer is YES, then it (the probabilistic Turing ...
5
votes
1answer
188 views

Finding a positive point for a collection of polynomials

I am wondering about the complexity of the following problem: Given $k$ polynomials $p_1(x_1, \ldots, x_n)$, $p_2(x_1, \ldots, x_n)$, $\ldots$, $p_k(x_1, \ldots, x_n)$ over the $n$ real ...
10
votes
1answer
133 views

Examples of the use of biased estimators

Biased estimators are useful in statistics because they can optimize mean-squared error more than what an unbiased estimator can manage. I was wondering if in theoryCS if there are any very notable ...
1
vote
1answer
88 views

Estimate the maximum frequency of substring with given length in a very long character stream

Suppose there is a very long string $S\in \Sigma^N$ with length $N$, where $\Sigma$ is a relatively small alphabet (for example, $\Sigma=\{'a', 'b', \ldots, 'z'\}$). Now, given a budget $B$, the goal ...
10
votes
1answer
287 views

When does BPP with a biased coin equal standard BPP?

Let a probabilistic Turing machine have access to an unfair coin that comes up heads with probability $p$ (flips are independent). Define $BPP_p$ as the class of languages recognizable by such a ...
4
votes
6answers
398 views

Is there a linear space lower bound for streaming set equality?

Consider two streams. In each stream one string arrives at a time. A query asks: Is the set of strings that has arrived so far the same in both streams? Is there a linear space randomized lower ...
3
votes
1answer
103 views

Quick Sampling from Probability Distribution: Is there a name for this algorithm?

I'm trying to quickly sample from a near-uniform discrete probability distribution exactly once without calculating the entire CDF. Here's the algorithm. Givens: $N,$ the number of elements to ...
2
votes
1answer
348 views

Can every distribution producible by a probabilistic PSpace machine be produced by a PSpace machine with only polynomially many random bits?

Let $M$ be a probabilistic Turing machine with a unary input $n$ whose space is bounded by a polynomial in $n$ and its output is a distribution $D$ over binary strings. Note that the number of ...
1
vote
1answer
122 views

Randomized and deterministic query complexity of symmetric functions

The deterministic query complexity $D(f)$ of a symmetric function $f$ is $\Omega(n)$ (except for f = 0 or f = 1). I am wondering if the same result holds for the (bounded-error) randomized query ...
6
votes
1answer
604 views

Johnson and Lindenstrauss lemma for hamming space

A result of Johnson and Lindenstrauss shows that a set of $n$ points in high dimensional Euclidean space can be mapped into an $O(\frac{\log n}{\epsilon^2})$- dimensional Euclidean space such that the ...
15
votes
3answers
993 views

Examples of successful derandomization from BPP to P

What are some major examples of successful derandomization or at least progress in showing concrete evidence towards $P=BPP$ goal (not the hardness randomness connection)? The only example that comes ...
3
votes
3answers
293 views

Random grid point in a d-dimensional ball

I would like to know if there is any standard algorithm to generate a random grid point inside a d-dimensional ball with a given radius r. Thanks Bin Fu