Questions tagged [randomness]

Randomness is a key component of probabilistic algorithms, many combinatorial aarguments, the analysis of hashing functions, and in cryptography, among other applications.

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Hardness assumption: an NP-complete problem whose ratio of hard instances do not tend to zero?

I am wondering about the following property $\text{(P)}$ of an $NP$-complete language $L$ $\begin{align}\exists M\text{ a polytime machine}\lim_{n\to\infty}P(\text{M solves a random instance of size $...
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Converse form of Chernoff bound

Suppose $X_1,\ldots,X_n$ are i.i.d. random variables, all with mean $p$, and we have the statement that $\Pr\left[\sum_i X_i\geq 0.8n\right]\geq 0.9$, can we use this to conclude anything about $p$ (...
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Derandomizing arbitrary width *read-many* and *ordered* branching programs?

Modifying following TedP We know that derandomizing width $5\leq k\in O(1)$ read many branching programs is equivalent to $BPNC^1=NC^1$ and derandomizing width $k\in\Omega(n)$ read once ordered ...
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Creating a random tree (BST) on $n$ elements using a random sequence of zeroes and ones

We have a sorted list of $n$ numbers and we shall create a BST for these numbers. We create a random sequence of zeroes and ones of length $n$. We shall make use of this random binary sequence to form ...
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Random variates generation in discrete-event simulation models

In discrete-event simulation, most university textbooks (e.g., Law & Kelton, Banks etc.) state that for generating variates for each random variable (e.g., interarrival time, service time etc.) in ...
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Provable BPP Hierarchy

No Time Hierarchy theorem is known for $\mathsf{BPTIME}$, however, consider the following simple modification of the definition: A language is in $\mathsf{ProvableBPTIME}[f(n)]$ if there is a ...
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Converting a Bernoulli to a Gaussian

It is not hard to see that, given one sample from a univariate unit-variance Gaussian $X\sim \mathcal{N}(\mu,1)$ with unknown $\mu$ s.t. $0<|\mu|\leq 1$, one can simulate one draw from a "...
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Generating $k$ random bits from a pdf with entropy $H(p) = k$

All the sources online say that, intuitively, a distribution with entropy $k$ has $k$ bits of pure randomness in it. So can we formalize this as follows? Suppose I can only sample from my distribution,...
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Upper bound on Independence Number of Random Regular Graph with degree $\Theta(\sqrt{|V|} \log^2 |V|)$

Let $G=(V,E)$ be a random $\Delta$-regular graph with $\Delta \in \Theta(\sqrt{|V|} \log^2 |V|)$. I'm analysing an algorithm having asymptotic running time crucially depending on the Independence ...
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How come Wikipedia says that Random Turing Machines can provide uncomputable output?

Wikipedia article mentioned : Hypercomputation The third paragraph starts off with: Technically, the output of a random Turing machine is uncomputable; however, most hypercomputing literature focuses ...
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Is there an assumption that implies $P=ZPP$ which is not known to imply $P=BPP$?

There are assumptions that are known to imply that $P = BPP$. For example, if there exists a function in $E = DTIME(2^{O(n)})$ that has circuit complexity $2^{\Omega(n)}$, then $P = BPP$ [1]. Clearly, ...
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Randomized Reduction for Maximization Problem

I have two maximization problems $P_1$ and $P_2$ where the decision version $L_1 = \{(x, t) : \operatorname{Val}_1(x)\ge t\}$ of $P_1$ is $\mathsf{NP}$-complete. Let $f:P_1\to P_2$ be a randomized ...
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Does two-sided error have more capability than one-sided error?

From $P=RP$ extrapolation we might think $EXP=REXP$. What evidence do we have $BPP\subseteq REXP$? What consequence $REXP\subseteq BPP$ gives other than what $EXP\subseteq BPP$ gives?
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BPP fragment of a PSPACE complete problem

Consider a PSPACE-complete problem (e.g., TQBF). Is there a sub-problem in BPP, that is not known to be in P? Is there a general technique of finding such sub-problems? Are any of them "natural" (i.e....
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Expected value of a random experiment in a graph

I need to find the expected value of R in the random experiment below. $$ R = \frac{1}{K} \sum_{C \in \mathcal{H} } \ [\frac{1}{2} |V(C)| * (|V(C)| - 1) - |C|] $$ $\mathcal{H}$ is a partition on ...
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Deterministic error reduction, state-of-the-art?

Assume one has a randomized (BPP) algorithm $A$ using $r$ bits of randomness. Natural ways to amplify its probability of success to $1-\delta$, for any chosen $\delta>0$, are Independent runs + ...
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Lower bound on the worst-case unbiased coin flips to sample a distribution?

Say that we have a distribution $\mathcal{D}$ such that all probabitilities associated with it are $p$-bit fixed precision numbers, so: $$ \Pr_{X\sim \mathcal{D}}[X = k] =\sum_{i = 1}^p \frac{k_i}{2^i}...
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How to use a 𝑝-coin so a TM can decide an undecidable language in polynomial time? [closed]

In "Computational complexity- A modern approach" book (page 117) for the lemma 7.12 (following) the author mentioned that if the ρ is efficiently computable ρ-coin cannot give probabilistic algorithm ...
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Robustness to non-uniform randomness vs. one-sidedness

Consider any problem where, fixing two (disjoint) subsets $\mathcal{Y},\mathcal{N}\subseteq \{0,1\}^n$ of the input space, the goal is to obtain a randomized algorithm $D$ which, given a uniformly ...
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3 votes
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Optimal bounds for $k$-wise non-uniform random bits

Let $k\geq 2$ be a constant (in my case, $k=4$), and $n,t \geq 0$ be integers such that $2^t \leq n$. What is the smallest sample space (or, equivalent, how many true independent random bits are ...
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Strong seeded randomness extractors with low entropy loss

I would like to implement a strong seeded randomness extractor for flat sources as a part of my project. Most of the literature on seeded extractors is concentrated on minimizing seed length. ...
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Newman's lemma for distributional communication complexity

This may be obvious — sorry if it is. Newman's lemma (Newman91] shows that any public-coin communication protocol to compute a Boolean function $f\colon \{0,1\}^n\times\{0,1\}^n\to\{0,1\}$ can be ...
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What forms of randomness are 'allowed' in FPRASs?

I cannot seem to find a source describing randomized approximation schemes ((F)PRAS) that tells me exactly what sort of randomness a program is allowed to use. A priori it seems to me that being able ...
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Sets of solutions which it is hard to uniformly sample from, but easy to integrate functions over? (Or compute expectations over?)

I'm curious if there is a problem (e.g. something like perfect matchings on a given graph, number of solutions to a boolean equation, etc. for precise frameowork see JVV86) such that: 1) It is hard ...
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Distributions which are intractable to sample from?

I'm looking for an interesting family of probability distributions $P$ that is intractable to efficiently sample from. I'm not sure what the right notion of intractable is, though I know the notion ...
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research problem for undergraduate majoring in Computer Science and Mathematics

I am wondering if somebody can suggest a small research problem for undergraduate majoring in Computer Science and Mathematics. Would love to work with random matrices or wavelets.
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Proof of Sipser-Lautmann Theorem

I have written the following answer as an attempt to prove a variation of Sispser-Lautmann theorem, but it was rejected without any comments. I would appreciate if anyone can find the flaws in this ...
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2 votes
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Motivation for randomness extractors

I'm a maths masters student exploring how results in the geometry of finite fields, such as the finite field Kakeya conjecture, applies to randomness extractors. I'm not a computer scientist, and must ...
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Application of the inequality with expectations

Let $\Vert\cdot\Vert$ is a norm in $R^n$. Let $x_1,\dots,x_N$ non-independent Rademacher random variables random variables (variables which are uniform on $\{-1, 1\}$). . By $E$ we denote an ...
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1 vote
2 answers
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Is true randomness and the physical Church-Turing thesis incompatible?

As follow up to Does the physical Church-Turing thesis imply that all physical constants are computable?, I ask if true randomness (as predicted by QM) and the physical Church-Turing thesis are ...
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What is the probability that a random Boolean function has a trivial automorphism group?

Given a Boolean function $f$, we have the automorphism group $Aut(f) = \{\sigma \in S_n\ \mid \forall x, f(\sigma(x)) = f(x) \}$. Are there any known bounds on $Pr_f(Aut(f) \neq 1)$? Is there ...
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1 vote
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Cluster Assignment in the Stochastic Block Model

Recently, numerous papers have been published about the stochastic block model (SBM). In the literature about SBMs, a plethora of different settings are considered. I am interested in how vertices are ...
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1 vote
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An alternative model of a probabilistic Turing machine [closed]

A probabilistic Turing machine operates with an additional tape of random bits, and its output is a random variable with some distribution over the random bits. Is it also useful to talk about the ...
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4 votes
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On earlier references for $P=BPP$ and Kolmogorov's possible view on modern breakthroughs involving randomness?

Kolmogorov and Uspenskii in this paper 'http://epubs.siam.org/doi/pdf/10.1137/1132060' speculate P=BPP in 1986. They do this without getting into circuit lower bounds and from a different view which ...
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2 votes
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Weighted balls and bins

Suppose I have $n$ balls and $n$ bins. Each ball $i$ has weight $w_i$. Let the total weight be $T = \sum_{i=1}^n w_i$. We throw the balls into the bins randomly, i.e., each ball lands into a random ...
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Where does the "intuitive" understanding of Kolmogorov complexity fails

Often, the Kolmogorov complexity of some string $x$ is defined as the length of the shortest program producing $x$, for example on wikipedia. So to give this more formal meaning, define $$ K'(x) := ...
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UnambiguousSAT reductions

Let $\Pi$ be an $\mathsf{NP}$-complete problem. It is standard that $3SAT$ and $\Pi$ are reducible from each other. Let UnambiguousSAT, or USAT for short, denote the promise problem which is 3SAT but ...
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5 votes
1 answer
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Connectivity of a random regular graph of degree $d$

An Erdos-Renyi graph over $n$ vertices and average degree $d$ is not connected whp iff $d < \log n$. I was wondering for what the degree $d$ would a random regular graph of degree $d$ be connected? ...
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10 votes
1 answer
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Can true randomness (provably) be replaced with Kolmogorov randomness for RP?

Have there been any attempts to show that Kolmogorov randomness would be sufficient for RP? Would the probability used in the statement "If the correct answer is YES, then it (the probabilistic Turing ...
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2 votes
1 answer
167 views

Probability of random variable $X$ less than $max(Y_i)$

For $\lambda > \mu$, consider independent random variables (i) $X \sim Pois(\mu)$ and (ii) $Y_i \sim Pois(\lambda),\;i\in{1,2}$. Question : Can we upper-bound the following? $$\mathbb{P}\big(X\...
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3 votes
1 answer
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The average number of compressible strings in a random set of random strings

In the book Elements of Information Theory (p.446), it is stated: ...although there are some simple sequences, most sequences do not have simple descriptions. Similarly, most integers are not simple. ...
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Embedding of "large" graphs into random graph

Let $G \sim G_{n,p}$ be a binomial random graph and consider a sequence of graphs $\{H_n\}_n$. When $|H_n|=\mathcal{O}(1)$, then one knows the exact threshold $p_0$ for embeddabiliy of $H_n$ in $G$. ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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How to generate Extended Finite State Machines Randomly with some properties?

This is related to my academic project An extended finite state machine is a tuple $SM=(I,S,T)$ (simplified): $I$ is the set of identifiers and it's divided into two sets Inputs and outputs, for ...
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How does one sample uniformly at random from an uncountably infinite set?

I want to know if there are any examples of polynomial time algorithms which can sample uniformly at random from a given uncountably infinite set? (assuming it is possible) Does it help if the sample ...
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Is there a problem currently known to be outside class $\mathsf{NP}\cup\mathsf{coNP}$ but inside $\mathsf{BPP}$?

May be this is trivial but I do not know the answer. As far as we know $$\mathsf{BPP}\subseteq\mathsf{\Sigma}_2\cap\mathsf{\Pi}_2$$ holds. As far as we know $$\mathsf{NP}\cup\mathsf{coNP}\subseteq\...
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7 votes
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Shoup-style hashing without one-wayness

Let $H$ be an almost universal hash family of functions from $D^2$ to $D$. For any functions $f,g \in H$ define the function $\langle f,g \rangle : D^4 \to D$ by $\langle f,g \rangle(a,b,c,d) \...
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Factoring random selfreducibility analogy from discrete logarithm

It is stated in https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Random_self-reducibility#Discrete_logarithm that if discrete log is easy for $\frac 1{poly(\log|G|)}$ of all inputs, then discrete log has a randomized ...
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6 votes
1 answer
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Graph that maximizes minimum hitting time?

Let $G$ be some connected bidirectional (or undirected) graph. We define a random walk as a walk that begins at a vertex chosen uniformly at random, and at each step proceeds to one of its current ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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Real number $p$ such that a $p$-coin makes the undecidable decidable [closed]

This is an exercice from Arora & Barak, Chapter 7 : Describe a real number $p$ such that given a random coin that comes up "heads" with probability $p$, a Turing machine can decide an ...
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7 votes
1 answer
331 views

Evidence that there is some problem in BQP distinct from BPP?

Are there any evidences (1 physics, 2 mathematics AND 3 computer science) that particular problems such as integer factorization, discrete logarithm are in BQP but not in BPP? There do not seem to be ...
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