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Questions tagged [reductions]

A reduction is the transformation of one problem into another problem. A example of using a reduction would be to be to show if a problem P is undecidable. This would be achieved by transforming or performing a reduction of a decision problem $P$ into an undecidable problem. If this can be achieved then we have shown that this problem P is undecidable.

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How to prove that a problem is not smoothed-polynomial?

Many research works use Smoothed analysis to prove that some NP-hard problems can actually be solved efficiently in typical cases. A different notion with a similar goal is Generic-case complexity. ...
Erel Segal-Halevi's user avatar
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64 views

Is a problem, that is $L$-complete under non-uniform $AC^0$ reductions, necessarily outside of (non-uniform or uniform) $NC^1$?

I don't have much intuition about non-uniformity so the question may be quite naive.
A. G.'s user avatar
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Natural reduction from partially observable Markov decision process planning to reconfiguration

Suppose I want to prove the PSPACE-completeness of reconfiguration by reducing partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP) planning to it. Is there a known natural / succinct reduction from ...
delete000's user avatar
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Is this kind of "multi-reduction" interesting?

Given a decision problem $P$, the usual way to show that it is NP-hard is to find a known NP-hard problem $Q$, and show a polynomial-time algorithm that transforms every instance $I_Q$ of $Q$ to an ...
Erel Segal-Halevi's user avatar
-4 votes
1 answer
111 views

Can you find a counterexample / disprove my P=NP solution?

I've posted the full article here. The source code is available here. Basically, in the Linear Programming (LP) task, we solve a system of inequalities: one inequality per BSAT clause. In each ...
Serge Rogatch's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
175 views

This is a variant of the unsolved problem of $a^6+b^6+c^6≠d^6+e^6+f^6$, for distinct primes. Does it have any significance for Exact Three Cover?

Suppose, I'm solving Exact 3 Cover, given a list with no duplicates $S$ of $3m$ whole numbers and a collection $C$ of subsets of $S$, each containing exactly three elements. The goal is to decide if ...
The T's user avatar
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Why is the model-checking problem for MSO $\textsf{PSPACE}$-complete?

I am currently reading "Parameterized Complexity Theory" by J. Flum and M. Grohe. In Chapter 10.3 they state in the first paragraph: Let us remind the reader that the model-checking problem ...
user11718766's user avatar
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70 views

Reductions That Acts on Witnesses

We say that a language $X$ is polynomial time reducible to $Y$, intuitively, if given an algorithm for solving $Y$, there's an algorithm for solving $X$. I know this can be formalized using Karp ...
Boran Erol's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
92 views

strong NP-completeness of multi-dimensional Equal-Subset-Sum

I want to show that the multi-dimensional Equal-Subset-Sum is NP-complete in the strong sense: Given a set of $d$-dimensional vectors of non-negative integers, does there exist two distinct nonempty ...
caduk's user avatar
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converting K-SAT clause to a p-in-L-SAT equation

Given a generic K-SAT instance $S$ with $n$ boolean variables. Is it possible to convert a clause of this instance into an equivalent p-in-L SAT system of equations such that the number of new clauses ...
TheoryQuest1's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
217 views

Is Optimal Swap Sorting NP-Hard?

Given an array of integers with duplicates, find the minimum number of swaps to sort the array. According to this question, the problem is NP-Complete but the reference given proves NP-Completeness ...
Daniel García's user avatar
7 votes
2 answers
312 views

Proving #P-hardness for the number of subsets of a set of positive integers with a sum of at most T?

Consider the given problem: you have a set S of positive integers, and you want to find how many subsets have a sum of at most T. I highly suspect that the problem is hard since a polynomial time ...
Daniel García's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
85 views

Set Cover with Multiple covers

I am interested in whether a set cover instance that covers all elements $q$ times may have the property that every sufficiently small subset of this set cover will not cover the elements even once. ...
John's user avatar
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Complexity of Identifying SAT Problems with a Unique Solution from Satisfiable Instances

I am curious about the computational complexity involved in identifying SAT problems that have only one solution from a set of satisfiable SAT instances. input and output: input: A satisfiable cnf ...
Jxb's user avatar
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33 views

Nonlinear GAP similar to Min-GAP but with minimum quantities and without capacity

I have $m$ items and $n$ bins where each item $i$ and bin $j$ has a value $v_{i,j}$. Each bin $j$ has a value $V_j$. I want to pack the items into the bins such that (1) I minimize the ratio of the ...
Jika's user avatar
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6 votes
0 answers
174 views

Variation of (derandomized) Valiant-Vazirani

I am interested in the following "improvement" of the Valiant-Vazirani reduction. As pointed out here, under the right derandomization assumptions one can obtain a deterministic polynomial-...
Noel Arteche's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
158 views

Are there complexity teaching resources that do not treat NP-hardness gadgets as Voodoo magic?

I am teaching a mini-complexity course to high achieving high-school students from my country this fall, and they have all expressed strong interest in learning more about what $P, NP$, reductions, ...
user3508551's user avatar
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3 votes
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Is universal hashing fully black-box reducible to error correcting code?

Fully black-box reduction is defined as in Notions of reducibility between crytpographic primitives, O. Reingold et al. Error-correcting code is used in the black-box abstract way in the sense that ...
Kagura Hitoha's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
75 views

Using a certificate in the proof of NP hardness

Say I wanted to determine that the problem of membership in some language $L \subseteq \{0, 1\}^*$ is NP-hard. Say that I have a reduction $r: \{\text{set of quantifier free formulas} \rightarrow \{0,...
Amar Shah's user avatar
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0 answers
59 views

Reduction from Traveling Salesman

Consider the decision problem: "Given a complete weighted graph $G=(V,E)$, an integer $k\in\mathbb N$ and two nodes $s,t\in V$ decide if $G$ has a path of at least weight $k$" I had to ...
Green's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
75 views

Does there exist constant overhead reduction between common cryptographic primitives?

I have proved that there exist such reduction between error-correcting codes and exposure resilient functions, which is because that the transpose of a generator matrix for a ERC mapping $\mathbb{F}_2^...
Kagura Hitoha's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
117 views

Does GHC use graph reduction?

I have read somewhere that GHC does not use graph reduction for compiling/evaluating expressions. Is this right? If yes, what does it use as an alternative?
geeko's user avatar
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On the Reductions of Functional complexity Classes

In Chapter 10 of Computational Complexity by Christos Papadimitriou, it is noted that reduction between problems of functional complexity classes are defined as follows: Function problem A reduces to ...
Krish Singal's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
41 views

Statements equivalent to strongly polynomial time linear programming

Say a problem is SPT iff it admits an SPT algorithm. What statements of interest are known to be equivalent to "LP is SPT"? Examples: "linear feasibility solving is SPT" (due to ...
user76284's user avatar
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Reduction from unweighted graphs to weighted graphs?

Are there any examples where you take a problem for the unweighted case and reduce it to the weighted case? (Not the other way around). My objective is to do something similar to the following: If the ...
Nithish kumar's user avatar
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0 answers
78 views

Existence of W[1]-Hard construction from multiple hard problems

I am a research scholar working on parameterized complexity. Currently, I am exploring ways to prove the hardness of a problem by providing W[1]-Hard constructions. A problem is known to be fixed-...
Balchandar Reddy's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
316 views

Unclear proof step in Feder and Greene's 1988 paper showing NP-Hardness of approximating k-center problem within a factor of 1.82

I was reading the paper "Optimal Algorithms for Approximate Clustering", Feder and Greene [1988] (https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/62212.62255). Specifically, I was trying to look at the $1.82$...
Agile_Eagle's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
92 views

What is region construction in timed automata?

I've recently started self-learning timed automata. There's this theorem in there that a timed automaton can be converted to a DFA using a "region" construction. I've looked up references on ...
whoisit's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
131 views

Complexity of a sum with a product

Is the following problem NP-complete: Input: A set of tuples $T = \left\{ t_i=(a_i,b_i) | 1\le i\le n \right\}$, an integer $k$ and numbers $C,D\in \mathbb Q_{\ge 0}$. Question: Exists a subset $S\...
xtyner's user avatar
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-1 votes
1 answer
110 views

Need more explaination on this 'generality'

I am trying to understand how this proof works I don't understand, why this f' is nondecreasing? What kind of generality makes us come up with such kind of assumption? Please, I am weak.
Edee's user avatar
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-1 votes
1 answer
138 views

Showing that a modification of an NP-Complete problem is also NP-Complete

In this question I give a modified version of the knapsack problem, which I call the "extended knapsack problem". I want to show that this "extended" problem is NP-Complete, but I ...
user918212's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
195 views

Parameterized complexity of Hitting Set with slightly bigger parameter

The Hitting Set problem, when parameterized by the size $k$ of the hitting set, is W[2]-hard. Is it also W[2]-hard when parameterized by $k$ plus the number of subsets in the instance? I explain in a ...
Noel Arteche's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
97 views

Reducing counting minimal vertex covers to counting minimum cardinality vertex covers

Consider two problems. Problem 1: Given a graph $G = (V, E)$, find the number of minimum cardinality vertex covers of $G$. Problem 2: Given a graph $G = (V, E)$, find the number of minimal vertex ...
AngryLion's user avatar
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12 votes
0 answers
394 views

Invisible electric fence even if P = NP?

Scott Aaronson has suggested that one argument in favor of $\mathsf{P} \ne \mathsf{NP}$ is that there seems to be an invisible electric fence separating $\mathsf{NP}$-complete problems from problems ...
Timothy Chow's user avatar
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-1 votes
1 answer
253 views

Does such a graph exist? [closed]

[EDITED FOR CLARITY] Does there exist an edge-colored graph $G$ with the following properties? $G$ has a vertex $r$ with exactly three, distinctly colored, incident edges: $(r, u)$, $(r, v)$, $(r, w)$...
Yuhang Bai's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
105 views

Worst to average case reductions for quantum complexity classes

I am studying worst to average case reductions for different complexity classes. Consider quantum complexity classes like QMA, QSZK, or QIP. Is it known or believed that these classes are amenable to ...
AngryLion's user avatar
  • 173
6 votes
1 answer
263 views

Complexity of reachability in directed rooted forests

I'm trying to figure out the complexity of the reachability problem having as input a directed rooted forest, i.e., given a set of directed rooted trees and two vertices $s$ and $t$, tell if $s$ and $...
Abel Freid's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
140 views

A reduction from the maximum $k$-closure problem to the clique problem

Fix a partially ordered set $(P, \le)$ with $N$ elements and real weights $w(p)$ for each $p \in P$. A subset $S \subset P$ is called closed if for any $x, y$ with $y \in S$ and $x \le y$ we also ...
dvitek's user avatar
  • 111
1 vote
1 answer
246 views

Can this NP-hardness proof for Super Mario Brothers (and other games) be simplified?

In "Classic Nintendo Games are (Computationally) Hard", a generalized framework based on reducibility of 3-SAT for proving NP-hardness of classic Nintendo games is presented, and several ...
ferris's user avatar
  • 11
3 votes
1 answer
172 views

complexity class of a function - linear combinations and reductions (Fermionant, immanant, $GL_n$ representations)

The fermionant is a matrix function from physics, which is indexed by a positive integer $k$: \begin{align} \operatorname{Ferm}_k(A) = \sum_{\lambda} d_{\lambda}^{(k)} \operatorname{Imm}_{\lambda^T}(A)...
Teferi's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
1k views

3SAT to 1-in-3SAT reduction with additonal constraints

The simplest Reduction for 3-SAT to 1-in-3-SAT reduction is as follows: For each 3SAT clause: $x+y+z=1$ Introduce 4 new variables $\{a, b, c, d\}$ and replace original clause with below 3 clauses: $R(...
J.Doe's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
410 views

Proving not NP-complete by non-existence of gadget

Suppose we suspect a problem to be polynomial time solvable, but we are unable to prove this. So, we attempt to prove that the problem cannot be NP-hard. Known proofs in this direction show that if ...
Cyriac Antony's user avatar
5 votes
0 answers
68 views

The complexity of tensor formula evaluation problem over an infinite field

In the paper The complexity of tensor calculus by C. Damm, M. Holzer and P. McKenzie (link), the authors reduced the problem of computing the permanent of 0/1-matrices to that of evaluating tensor ...
Conn-CaoYK's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
179 views

The graph of problem reductions

A classical approach to study the complexity of a problem $P$ is to efficiently reduce a well known problem $P'$ to $P$, thus showing that $P$ is at least as difficult as $P'$. The TCS literature ...
Matthieu Latapy's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
193 views

Knowing if there are two solutions to the subset sum problem

I was wondering if there are any results that say how hard it is to answer the question are there TWO subsets that sum to a fixed value? In other words, the subset sum problem but asking if there are ...
user73236's user avatar
  • 119
7 votes
1 answer
353 views

Is solving the following system of boolean equations NP-hard?

I reduced a problem I'm currently working on to the following system of boolean equations: $$ X_i \iff \begin{cases} \bigvee_{B \in A_i} \bigwedge_{k \in B} X_k \\ true \\ false \end{cases} $$ Where $|...
lukas1994's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
76 views

Some examples of tools to demonstrate problem is in $NC$ [closed]

Unlike the class $P$ or $NP$ the class $NC$ does not have any complete problems. To show a problem is in $NC$ one needs to marshal efforts to directly show the problem is in $NC$ since there are no ...
Turbo's user avatar
  • 13k
0 votes
0 answers
203 views

3-partition problem without the restriction to triplets

In the standard 3-partition problem, there are $3 m$ integers, their sum is $m T$, and they have to be partitioned into $m$ subsets of sum $T$ and size $3$. Consider the variant without the ...
Erel Segal-Halevi's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
242 views

Is it possible to reduce an NP language to a NEXP language with exponentially smaller input length?

Suppose we have an NP-complete language $L_1$ and a NEXP-complete language $L_2$. For any deterministic exptime machine $M_1$ with oracle access $M_1^{L_1}$, is it possible to find a deterministic ...
Hans Schmuber's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
98 views

Can a NEXP machine simulate invalid queries to a promise problem oracle?

Let $A=(A_{YES},A_{NO})$ be some promise problem (such as xSAT, the Local Hamiltonian problem, etc). Suppose we want to show that a P machine with access to a the oracle A can always have its output ...
Hans Schmuber's user avatar

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