Questions tagged [terminology]

questions about definitions, terms, and common names in theoretical computer science.

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186 views

HyperLogLog: Why “Hyper?”

I was teaching the HyperLogLog estimator in class earlier this week and a student asked where the “hyper” bit came from. I know that HyperLogLog is a refinement/improvement to the LogLog estimator, so ...
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Terminology for languages of pairs of words

I want to consider $L \subset A^* \times B^*$ as a "language". Is there standard terminology for this? I wrote "double language" first (but that doesn't sound right to me), then &...
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Complexity class name for the class of languages that are $\Sigma^1_1$-definable over finite domains

Let ${\cal L}=\{Y_1,..., Y_k, X\}$ be a finite relational language such that $X$ is a unary relation name. Let $\phi(X,\bar{Y})\in{\cal L}$ be a first-order formula (the formula can have the equality ...
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500 views

(concise?) definition of thread safety

Wikipedia has the following definition: Thread safety is a computer programming concept applicable in the context of multi-threaded programs. A piece of code is thread-safe if it only ...
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What does it mean by the statement: "a problem is hard to approximate "?

In most of the research papers that I have read so far, I often come across the statement of the following form: "the problem is hard to approximate within any factor smaller than some constant&...
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What does 'gadget' mean in NP-hard reduction?

This question may not be technical. As a non-native speaker and a TA for algorithm class, I always wondered what gadget means in 'clause gadget' or 'variable gadget'. The dictionary says a gadget is a ...
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2answers
150 views

Adjective for: algorithm that outputs its input if it is one of its outputs?

Is there a well established adjective or name for an algorithm such that, given as input any of its own output, always outputs it unchanged? In other words, an algorithm such that it implements a ...
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1answer
99 views

Is there a notion of "sequential" idempotence?

TL;DR: I have a definition, and I'm wondering if it already has a name or has been studied. Suppose we have a sequence of operations (or if we want to be mathematical, functions whose domains and ...
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Are there any intersections between Theory A and Theory B?

In the following two questions Origins and applications of Theory A vs Theory B? and Solid applications of category theory in TCS?, many people shared their knowledge and opinions about the division ...
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3answers
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what does "lifting" mean?

I see in certain places "lifting computation" or "lifting" mentioned. I haven't been able to accurately define for myself what is meant by that. This usually comes up in computer science context. Any ...
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1answer
159 views

What is the etiquette of naming concepts after people?

There is a concept introduced by other researchers that I use in my work, and IMO it is appropriate to rename it to honor the inventors. Is it considered normal to just go ahead and name it like that ...
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1answer
164 views

What is the name of this algorithm on direct acyclic graph?

I am trying to linearize the history of a git branch for display purpose. I want commits to be collocated by branch instead of simply displaying commits in the order given by the time of commit. In ...
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Terminology about computation and Finite algebra

I am looking for the name of something that may have one. A finite algebra $\mathcal{A} = (E, \{f_1, f_2, \ldots, f_k\})$ is a non-empty set $E$ together with some functions $f_i$ from $E^{r_i} \to E$...
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2answers
73 views

Constraint terminology

If we want to pick a solution $S$ from a collection of items $C$ to maximize some function $f(S)$. The constraint that we pick at most $k$ item, i.e., $|S| \leq k$, is called the cardinality ...
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A class of functions on a lattice that are easy to optimize

Let $({\cal P}(X),\subseteq)$ be the subset lattice for a finite set $X$. Consider a function $f:{\cal P}(X)\to \mathbb{R}$ with the following property: Given any element $I_0\in {\cal P}(X)$, there ...
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1answer
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Constraint satisfaction problem (CSP) vs. satisfiability modulo theory (SMT); with a coda on constraint programming

Does someone dare to attempt to clarify what's the relation of these fields of study or perhaps even give a more concrete answer at the level of problems? Like which includes which assuming some ...
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3answers
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What is First-Order Rewritable (and FO-Query)?

I just wonder what FO Rewritable is, put an example to make it clearer for me. Also, I heard that a language that is FO Rewritable is very good, in what sense? It is said as follow: A class C of ...
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Maximize number of edges covered by an independent set of vertices

Smallest vertex cover which is also an independent set asks about finding an independent set that covers all edges. This problem is known as the independent vertex cover problem and is equivalent to ...
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1answer
105 views

Quick Sampling from Probability Distribution: Is there a name for this algorithm?

I'm trying to quickly sample from a near-uniform discrete probability distribution exactly once without calculating the entire CDF. Here's the algorithm. Givens: $N,$ the number of elements to ...
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1answer
703 views

On partitioning a collection into equivalence classes

Suppose I have a collection $A$ that I want to partition into equivalence classes, according to some equivalence predicate $E$. The naive algorithm for doing this is essentially recursive. It ...
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1answer
1k views

What's "pseudo time" when used in comparison with semaphores

I'm currently listening to Alan Kays' talk "Is it really complex or did we just make it complicated ?" (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ubaX1Smg6pY&= ) where he says that "semaphores were a bad ...
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8answers
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Is it a Known Concept to Compute an Algorithm Once and Re-Interpret Answer for Different Inputs

I recently came across a strange concept and was wondering if this was a known / named concept in the realm of CS. The concept is that you evaluate some computation or logical circuit that takes in N ...
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Regular expressions aren't

Ask even someone with a background in computer science what a regular expression is, and the answer is likely to go beyond the constraint of being within reach of a finite-state automaton. For ...
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123 views

Complexity of a particular determinant

Suppose we have an $n\times n$ matrix $A$ with non-negative integer entries such that $\mathsf{Tr}(A^i)=0$ at every $i\in\{1,2,\dots,n-2,n-1\}$ and $\mathsf{Tr}(A^n)\neq0$, then from Trace-Determinant ...
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What does "modulo" mean in SMT? [closed]

Very simple question, for which I failed to find an explanation: what does "modulo" mean in the "Satisfiability Modulo Theories"?
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What's the difference between term rewriting and pattern matching?

As there was no response at Lambda the Ultimate I try it here again: term rewriting systems are used for instance in automated theorem proving a symbolic calculation, and of course to define formal ...
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692 views

Graph isomorphism with equivalence relation on the vertex set

A colored graph can be described as tuple $(G,c)$ where $G$ is a graph and $c : V(G) \rightarrow \mathbb{N}$ is the coloring. Two colored graphs $(G,c)$ and $(H,d)$ are said to be isomorphic if there ...
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Can complexities differ w.r.t. different computational models?

I understand that a decision problem can be decidable with respect to certain computational models. For instance, the question whether an arbitrary sequence of parenthesis is balanced is undecidable ...
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947 views

Is it right to call $2^{\sqrt{n}}$ "exponential"?

In his answer to a previous question, Sadeq Dousti recalled the following terminology: $f(n) = n^{\omega(1)}$ is called super-polynomial. (e.g. $n^{\log n}, 2^n, 2^{2^n}$.) $f(n) = 2^{n^{\Theta(1)}}$ ...
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1answer
847 views

Terminology for f(g(x)) = g(f(x))

There is a paper by Ritt from 1923 that calls the relation, $f(g(x)) = g(f(x))$, permutable functions. Is there a more recent terminology used in the literature, or is this still the standard?
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272 views

Terminology for complete k-partite graph where k is not fixed

Is there a better term for "complete k-partite graph" in the case where k is not fixed? If I say "complete k-partite graph", people tend to assume "for some particular k". In other words, what's a ...
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If you could rename dynamic programming...

If you could rename dynamic programming, what would you call it?
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Is there a name for this property of a binary relation?

Consider a binary relation $\mathsf{R}$ such that $x\mathsf{R}y$ is the case only if there is some $z$ such that both $x\mathsf{R}z$ and $y\mathsf{R}z$ are the case. (EDIT: note that this may be ...
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2answers
297 views

All literals implied by a set of horn clauses

What is the name of this problem: given a set of Horn clauses (in fact just definite clauses and facts), find the set of literals which can be deduced from it. E.g. given $\{a, a \Rightarrow b, b \...
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1answer
427 views

Complexity of blind sort?

We all know that the minimal complexity of a comparison-based sorting algorithm is $\Omega(n \log n)$ comparisons. I'm trying to do a blind sort, i.e. given a number $n$ output a circuit (with boolean,...
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2answers
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Why is lambda calculus a "calculus"?

The only definition of "calculus" I'm aware of is the study of limits, derivatives, integrals, etc. in analysis. In what sense is lambda calculus (or things like mu calculus) a "calculus"? How does it ...
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1answer
111 views

How to say "select the largest" when there can be more than one [closed]

Many algorithms include a step such as "select the largest number from a given numeric array", or "select the leftmost point from a given set of points", etc. In many cases, it is possible that the ...
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3answers
689 views

what is "one-to-one reduction from a function f to another function g"

I am reading a paper called "Rational Proof". It mentioned the following one-to-one reduction. I cannot google an introduction of it. An excerpt from the paper. "Recall that a one-to-one reduction ...
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1answer
201 views

Typing relations terminology – how do I read typing relations?

I am currently trying to read up on type theory and have some quick questions on terminology. In the following rule, $$ \frac{x:T_1 \vdash t_2 : T_2}{\vdash \lambda x:T_1.t_2:T_1\to T_2} $$ How ...
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1answer
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How can a problem be in NP, be NP-hard and not NP-complete?

For the longest time I have thought that a problem was NP-complete if it is both (1) NP-hard and (2) is in NP. However, in the famous paper "The ellipsoid method and its consequences in ...
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Is propositional resolution a complete proof system?

This question is about propositional logic and all occurrences of "resolution" should be read as "propositional resolution". This question is something extremely basic but it has been bothering me ...
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1answer
912 views

Equivalent definitions of time constructibility

We say that a function $f:\mathbb{N}\rightarrow\mathbb{N}$ is time-constructible, if there exists a deterministic multi-tape Turing machine $M$ that on all inputs of length $n$ makes at most $f(n)$ ...
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2answers
189 views

Labels for terms in the lambda calculus

In the lambda calculus, are there commonly accepted names for $x$ and $M$ when they appear in $\lambda x [M]$ ? Something along the lines of "binder" and "bindee"?
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1answer
500 views

Why is combinational logic called so?

What is the significance of the word "combinational" in combinational logic?
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1answer
653 views

Why are perfect graphs called perfect?

Sorry, if this is a naive question, but I could not find the justification in any of the major text books like Bondy-Murty, Diestel or West. Perfect graphs have many beautiful properties, but what is ...
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1answer
168 views

Set of functions computable in polynomial time

I write paper and I want to distinguish between the class of decision problems which can be decided in polynomial time and the class functions which can be computed in polynomial time. The first is ...
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1answer
226 views

Equivalent embeddings of a graph

I have difficulties finding a good definition of two embeddings of a (planar) graph in the plane being equivalent. Intuitively I mean by equivalent that the embeddings look the same up to ...
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2answers
397 views

Difference between Stencil -structures and Cellular Automata Category-theoretically?

Definitions Stencil = "For a given point, a stencil is a pre-determined set of nearest neighbors (possibly including itself)." (source) Wikipedia's definition (source) = It looks ...
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2k views

Maximizing sum edge weights

I am wondering if the following problem has a name, or any results related to it. Let $G = (V,w)$ be a weighted graph where $w(u,v)$ denotes the weight of the edge between $u$ and $v$, and for all $u,...
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1answer
484 views

Name for terminals on the left-hand side of grammar rules? [closed]

Consider rules as they are used for context-sensitive languages: $\alpha A \beta \rightarrow \alpha \gamma \beta$ If $\alpha$ is always empty, we have right-context sensitive grammars: $A \beta \...