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# Tag Info

Accepted

### Is BPP vs. P a real problem after we know BPP lies in P/poly?

Not sure how much of an answer this is, I'm just indulging in some rumination. Question 1 could be equally asked about P $\neq$ NP and with a similar answer -- the techniques/ideas used to prove the ...
• 7,738
Accepted

### Small circuits for circuit evaluation problem

I have learned from talking to Ryan Williams (who deserves the credit for my being able to post this answer) that it is known from Paul and Pippenger that Circuit Eval can be decided by a quasilinear ...
• 548

### Collapses under the assumption that $NEXP\subseteq P/Poly$

A whole lot of fun things happen. Most of the ones I know of start with the IKW paper. There, the collapse $\textrm{NEXP} = \textrm{MA}$ is shown, and (I think) is the strongest literal collapse of ...
• 1,429
Accepted

### Circuit and Formula Lower Bounds for Separating Sparse Sets of Strings

Yes, any such pair can be separated by a formula of size $O(n)$. More generally, any disjoint pair $P,N\subseteq\{0,1\}^n$ of size $s=|P|+|N|$ can be separated by a decision tree of size $O(s)$, which ...
• 18.2k
Accepted

### Collapses under the assumption that $NEXP\subseteq P/Poly$

I believe the strongest is that $NEXP = MA$. This was proved by Impagliazzo Kabanets and Wigderson. See https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cluster=17275091615053693892&hl=en&as_sdt=0,5&...
• 27.5k

### P/Poly vs Uniform Complexity Classes

$\let\mr\mathrm$There are several results in the literature stating that a certain class $C$ satisfies $C\nsubseteq\mr{SIZE}(n^k)$ for any $k$, and usually it is straightforward to pad them to show ...
• 18.2k
Accepted

### Evaluate boolean circuit on batch of similar inputs

I'd consider it unlikely that such a trick is easy to find and/or will give you significant gains, as it would give nontrivial satisfiability algorithms. Here's how: First of all, while ostensibly ...
• 1,429
Accepted

### Why is the circuit class AC0 unavoidable?

The class $\mathbf{AC}^0$ arises very naturally as the circuit characterization of problems definable by formulas of first-order logic. A language over the alphabet $\{ 0,1 \}$ is in $\mathbf{AC}^0$ ...
• 4,630

### What are examples of how non-uniformity can be useful?

An example I like is the argument that $\mathrm{NE\subseteq coNE}/(n+1)$ by counting strings in the language (see e.g. https://blog.computationalcomplexity.org/2004/01/little-theorem.html).
• 18.2k
Accepted

### Randomness and small circuits complexity classes

Most nonuniform complexity classes—$\mathrm{NC^1}$ included—are closed under the $\mathrm{BP}$ operator by the same argument as $\mathrm{BPP\subseteq P/poly}$: using the Chernoff–Hoeffding bound, the ...
• 18.2k

### What are examples of how non-uniformity can be useful?

One example is $\mathbf{NL} \subseteq \mathbf{UL}/\text{poly}$. This theorem was proven by Reinhardt and Allender in their paper "Making Nondeterminism Unambiguous". Without going into the details, ...
• 1,743
Accepted

### Linear circuit complexity classes

It follows from work of Valiant [1, 2] that linear-size $\textrm{NC}^1$ can be simulated by $2^{O(n / \log \log n)}$-size circuits of depth three and unbounded fan-in. For a nice exposition of this ...
Accepted

### $AC^0$[subexp] vs. NC

No, $\mathrm{AC}^0[2^{n^\delta}]$ is not included in NC; it is not even included in $\mathrm{SIZE}[2^{n^\epsilon}]$ for $\epsilon<\delta$. Indeed, any Boolean function on $n^\delta$ inputs, padded ...
• 18.2k
Accepted

• 2,247
Accepted

### Construction of arbitrary functions with exponential-size $MODp \circ MODq$ circuits

$\def\M#1{\mathrm{MOD}_{#1}}\def\F#1{\mathbb F_{#1}}$I don’t know of a reference, but here is one way how to prove the result. I’ll do it in three stages, each using one new idea: (1) multilinear ...
• 18.2k
Accepted

• 18.2k
Accepted

### Nondeterminism is on average useless for circuits?

1) Realize that nondeterminism is a red herring here. You could have used alternation or circuits that have gates that solve the halting problem. It boils down to a simple counting argument that once ...
• 8,711