5 votes

Q: Trusting program output from an untrusted machine

It is possible in standard cryptographic assumptions (like, existence of cryptographic hash functions), and proofs can be made non-interactive in a random oracle model. Modern zero knowledge proofs ...
Lev Soukhanov's user avatar
3 votes

How can arbitrary combinational logic be done with just addition and multiplication?

If you can do addition modulo 2 and multiplication modulo 2, you can implement XOR and AND gates, which are a universal basis for circuits, so you can implement any circuit. As @holf points out, if ...
D.W.'s user avatar
  • 12k
2 votes

"Security Against Covert Adversaries" question

1) $x_0$ is (indeed) a plaintext. (Perhaps to guess at where confusion arose from:) the 'more modern' version of homomorphic encryption is fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) fully supporting both ...
Daniel Apon's user avatar
  • 6,001

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